Using large-eddy simulations (LESs) of six observed boundary layer cases as benchmark data sets, we diagnosed vertical velocity as the sum of the grid-mean (w) and the subgrid-scale w using an empirical method we have developed. We have found that the subgrid-scale w is best characterized by the root-mean square of w 02 . The vertical velocity is expressed in the form of w = w + c ffiffiffiffiffiffiffi w 0 2 p , where c is diagnosed from LES data to be 0.24. The w is then used to diagnose the cloud drople…
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