DOI: 10.1155/2013/906136
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Abstract: The principles of nonequilibrium thermodynamics are discussed, using the concept of internal variables that describe deviations of a thermodynamic system from the equilibrium state. While considering the first law of thermodynamics, work of internal variables is taken into account. It is shown that the requirement that the thermodynamic system cannot fulfil any work via internal variables is equivalent to the conventional formulation of the second law of thermodynamics. These statements, in line with the axiom…

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