THE CHARGE-TRANSFER split-electrode structure"' has two major limitations which result in inadequate performance in some applications. It requires two operational amplifiers to clamp the two sensing electrodes to a virtual reference voltage. A third amplifier is needed to obtain the differential signal. Improved approaches3y4 have been reported. However, a complex chargesensing circuitry is still required. A complementary chargesensing approach using charge-coupled device technology will be described in this …
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