Formicine ants in distress spray alarm pheromone which typically recruits nestmates for help. Studying the western carpenter ant, Camponotus modoc Wheeler (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), our objectives were to (1) determine the exocrine glands that contain alarm recruitment pheromone, (2) identify the key alarm recruitment pheromone components, and (3) ascertain the pheromone components that are discharged by distressed ants. In Y-tube olfactometer experiments, extracts of poison glands, but not of Dufour's glands…
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