The taxonomy of Late Cretaceous genus Bolivinoides is revised on the basis of rich, newly collected material from central and eastern Poland and western Ukraine. Twelve species are described of which one is new: Bolivinides intermedius nov. sp. This species differs from the other bolivinoidid taxa in possessing two parallel medial rows of tubercles. The stratigraphic ranges of most of the taxa are compared with the macrofossil standard zonation, which allowed a correlation with the occurrence of bolivinoidids of distinct regions of Europe and other continents. The evolutionary trends of Bolivinoides are also discussed and two distinct lineages, Bolivinoides strigillatus and Bolivinoides laevigatus, are distinguished.
The biostratigraphic importance, current zonations, and potential for the recognition of the standard chronostratigraphic boundaries of five palaeontological groups (benthic foraminifers, ammonites, belemnites, inoceramid bivalves and echinoids), critical for the stratigraphy of the Santonian through Maastrichtian (Upper Cretaceous) of extra-Carpathian Poland, are presented and discussed. The summary is based on recent studies in selected sections of southern Poland (Nida Synclinorium; Puławy Trough including the Middle Vistula River composite section; and Mielnik and Kornica sections of south-eastern Mazury-Podlasie Homocline) and of western Ukraine (Dubivtsi). The new zonation based on benthic forams is presented for the entire interval studied. Zonations for ammonites, belemnites and inoceramid bivalves are compiled. All stage boundaries, as currently defined or understood, may easily be constrained or precisely located with the groups discussed: the base of the Santonian with the First Occurrence (FO) of the inoceramid Cladoceramus undulatoplicatus; the base of the Campanian with the Last Occurrence (LO) of the crinoid Marsupites testudinarius and approximated by the range of the foraminifer Stensioeina pommerana; and the base of the Maastrichtian approximated by the FO of the inoceramid bivalve Endocostea typica and the FO of the belemnite Belemnella vistulensis. The positions of substage boundaries, as currently understood, are constrained in terms of the groups discussed.
These events are re corded in very sim i lar strati graphic po si tions in the Lägerdorf-Kronsmoor succes sion (north ern Ger many) and in the suc ces sion of east ern Eng land and, at least some of them, in east ern Eu rope. Accord ingly they can serve as im por tant mark ers for strati graphic cor re la tion across Eu rope. The FOs of the plank tonic spe cies, Rugoglobigerina milamensis, R. hexacamerata and R. pennyi, in the up per most part of the "Inoceramus" redbirdensis Zone, are very close to the Campanian/Maastrichtian bound ary as de fined by inoceramid bi valves (Walaszczyk, 2004) and we pro pose these plank tonic foraminiferal bioevents as a good proxy for this bound ary in tem per ate re gions.
The stratigraphical distribution of Porosphaera globularis, a common calcareous sponge in the Upper Cretaceous (mostly Campanian and Maastrichtian) of Poland was studied. The presented material, both new and from museum collections, comes from the Campanian of the Miechów Synclinorium, in southern Poland, and from the Lower Campanian of Mielnik in the south-eastern part of the Mazury-Podlasie Homocline, in eastern Poland. The significance of the species in extra-regional correlation, its palaeobiogeography and stratigraphical potential is critically reviewed.
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