BackgroundHusbands play an influential role in women’s access to health care, such as family planning services. However, there is little evidence of the level of husbands’ involvement in family planning services among pastoralist communities, who possess a distinct lifestyle. This study was aimed to assess husbands’ involvement in family planning use and factors associated in pastoralist communities of Afar, Ethiopia.MethodsCommunity-based cross-sectional survey was conducted among randomly selected 418 married women in Afambo district, Afar pastoralist community in 2017. Data were collected using semi-structured questionnaire. Data were entered to EPI-Info version 7 statistical software programs and exported to SPSS. Descriptive and multivariable logistic regression analyses were applied to identify factors associated with husband involvement. Odds ratio at 95% confidence interval were reported and significant association of factors was declared at the p-value of less than 0.05.ResultFour hundred eighteen married women were included in the study, making a response rate of 98%. The magnitude of husbands’ involvement in family planning was found to be 42.2%. Women who ever used family planning (AOR: 7.21; 95%CI: 3.58–14.67), those who participated in community networks, those who reported health center as their source of information for family planning (AOR: 5.56; 95%CI: 1.92–16. o7) were higher likely to report husband involvement compare to their counterparts. Participants’ increased knowledge was also significantly associated with higher odds of husband involvement in family knowledge (AOR = 1.31; 95% CI: 1.16–1.58). .ConclusionHusbands’ involvement in the district is low. Women’s engagement in community networks aimed at increasing the knowledge of the women may involve in family planning. In addition, due focus among health care providers in lower health care units to provide information for both women and men might have a promising power to improve husbands involvement.
Background Psychoactive substance (PS) use is a public health concern among University students. Understanding the factors underlay the use helps to underpin effective preventive interventions. However, there is dearth of exploratory studies on the drivers of psychoactive substance use in Ethiopian universities. Here, we aimed to explore the drivers for psychoactive substance use among Mekelle University undergraduate students. Methods Exploratory qualitative study was conducted from April 1 to May 30, 2017. We conducted five focus group discussions (FGDs) and eleven in-depth interviews (IDIs) with students, proctors and bar owners. We also conducted three round interviews within two weeks interval with each of four key-informant researchers (KIR). Participants were selected purposively and the investigators conducted the discussions and the interviews using semi-structured guides. Data were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and imported into qualitative data analysis software for coding and analysis. An inductive approach was applied to crystalize non-repetitive emerging themes overarching the drivers for psychoactive substance use among university students. Results The following themes emerged as drivers for psychoactive substance use among University students; (1)feeling helpless following detachment from family, (2) prior experience with substances, (3) socialization reasons, (4) low academic performance, (5) physical environment (explained by easy access to substance and limited recreational alternatives), and (6) sub-optimal organizational support. Conclusions Multiple drivers that range from individual to structural levels are involved in university student’s use of psychoactive substances, with socialization process at the center of the factors. Thus, the study appeals for a range of multifaceted interventions directed to the individual, interpersonal and organizational level factors. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1186/s13011-018-0190-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Background: Food taboo is contributing substantially to malnutrition for pregnant women by restricting and limiting the frequency and variety of foods most of which are nutritious and easily accessible. The practice is common in developing countries and most of the food taboos in East Africa fall on the women and most unfortunately on the pregnant. Foods of animal products, which are the main sources dietary energy of pastoralist communities, are often prone to the practice of food taboos. Nonetheless, the existence of the practice in Ethiopian pastoralist communities, the communities whose way of life is mostly nomadic and based on tending of herds or flocks, is not investigated yet. Therefore, the current study aimed to explore foods tabooed for pregnant women and the reasons behind the practice if exists in Abala district of Afar region, Ethiopia. Methods: Exploratory qualitative study was conducted inductively involving homogeneous participants in four focus group discussions and eight key informants in individual in-depth interview who were purposively selected in Aballa district from March 1 to 30, 2016. A semi-structured interview guide was used to collect the data. The investigators audiotaped focus group discussions and interviews and then transcribed them verbatim. Finally, the transcribed data were imported to Atlas.ti 7 software for coding. Analysis was done inductively. Triangulation and peer debriefing were applied to assure data quality. Results: The study revealed that foods tabooed for pregnant women were 1) Eating a large amount of food of any type, 2) fatty foods like meat, milk and yoghurt, 3) Foods that are not in liquid form such as different types of bread and 4) cool/cold foods such as cold milk, cold meat and cold water. The reasons mentioned to adhere with the foods taboo for pregnant women were to avoid difficulty to deliver the fetus, to prevent disease like Gastritis, Diarrhea, Typhoid and skin discoloration of the fetus. Besides, inconveniences like abdominal cramp were reported as reasons to adhere the foods tabooed. Conclusions: Pregnant women in Aballa district avoid eating numerous accessible foods because the foods are believed as tabooed for them. Further studies that focus on the extent of food taboo and uncovering the understanding on how it is being practiced were recommended.
Despite the significant benefits of giving birth at a health facility to improve maternal and child health, the practice remains lower than expected in pastoralist communities of Ethiopia. Understanding the intentions of pregnant women to use health facilities for delivery predicts the adoption of the behavior, yet documented evidence of intention in the context of pastoralist populations remains scarce. The current study aimed to assess pregnant women’s intentions to use a health facility for delivery in the Afar region of Ethiopia using the framework of the health belief model (HBM). A community-based, cross sectional survey was conducted from April 1 to April 30 2016 among 357 randomly sampled pregnant women using an interviewer-administered, semi-structured questionnaire. Data were entered into EpiData and exported to SPSS version 20.0 for analysis. Principal component factor analysis was done to extract relevant constructs of the model, and the reliability of items in each construct was assessed for acceptability. Multivariate logistic regressions were applied to identify predictors of pregnant women’s intentions to give birth at a health facility. The odds ratio was reported, and statistical significance was declared at 95% CI and 0.05 p value. Three hundred fifty seven pregnant women participated in the study (104.6% response rate indicating above the minimum sample size required). Among the respondents, only 108 (30.3%) participants intended to use a health facility for the delivery for their current pregnancy. Higher household average monthly income [AOR = 1.23, 95% CI = (1.10 − 2.90), antenatal clinic (ANC) attendance for their current pregnancy [AOR = 1.41, 95% CI = (1.31 − 2.10), perceived susceptibility to delivery-related complications [AOR = 1.52, 95% CI = (1.30 − 2.70), and perceived severity of the delivery complications [AOR = 1.66, 95% CI = (1.12 − 2.31) were positively associated with pregnant women’s intentions to deliver at a health facility. Intention was negatively associated with participants’ perceived barriers to accessing a health facility [AOR = 0.62, 95% CI = (0.36 − 0.85). Conclusions: A low proportion of pregnant women in the sampled community intended to deliver at a health facility. Pastoralist communities may have special needs in this regard, with household income, antenatal care attendance, perceived risk of complications, and perceived barriers to accessing a health facility largely explaining the variance in intention. Community-based interventions providing counseling and messaging on danger signs in the perinatal period and emphasizing benefits of delivering at a facility are recommended, alongside improving access.
Background: Breastfeeding, particularly exclusive breastfeeding, is essential to ensure the short-and long-term health of infants and mothers. Sub-optimal breastfeeding practices currently take place in low income countries contributing to morbidity and mortality. This research explored the challenges and opportunities around exclusive breastfeeding in a large city in Ethiopia to inform a larger breastfeeding intervention. Methods: Fathers and mothers who had children less than 2 years of age, and who could speak, and understand Tigrigna were recruited from two health centres located in Mekelle, Ethiopia. Two focus group discussions (FGDs) with fathers and two FGDs with mothers (n = 42) were conducted using a semi-structured interview guide to explore the challenges and opportunities related to breastfeeding. Discussions were audio-recorded and transcribed in Tigrigna and translated to English. The data were manually analysed using thematic analysis, generating open codes which were grouped to form themes. Results: Four themes with 11 sub-themes emerged. The themes identifies were: conflicted emotions on the birth of baby (feeling happy and feeling worried); perspectives on intergenerational approaches (old-fashioned beliefs of grandparents and the power of science, breastfeeding in public, breastfeeding knowledge); gender roles as barriers and enablers (the burden on women, changes in men's roles and the financial status of the household); the role of healthcare (delivery of health information to parents, the role of health care providers and perceptions of inadequate milk supply). Conclusion: Parents reported a range of opportunities with respect to breastfeeding, including the power of a scientific approach, the positive role of healthcare, and shifts within gender roles that maximized the potential support from fathers. However, there remains a tension between the beliefs of older generations and current best-practice. Parents continue to need ongoing support in order to practice optimal breastfeeding.
BackgroundUse of modern contraceptive methods reduces the risk of unwanted pregnancy, and is influenced by individual-level factors. Willingness to use modern contraceptive methods maybe a useful metric when considering health outcomes as it could predict health behaviors. Therefore, the current study aimed to assess the willingness of women to use modern contraceptives in Afar pastoralist communities.MethodsA community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from May 1 to 30, 2016. Three hundred forty-five women of childbearing age (15–49 years) were systematically sampled with proportionate allocation from seven randomly selected kebeles (neighborhoods) in Aballa District of Afar Region, Ethiopia. All women meeting the inclusion criteria in each selected household were interviewed at home using a semi-structured questionnaire. Construct validity was assured using factor analysis. A combination of individual behavioral models were applied in order to measure willingness to use modern contraceptive methods. Multiple logistic regressions were utilized to identify factors associated with willingness to use contraceptive at P-value of less than 0.05.ResultsThree hundred twenty-two women participated in the study, for a response rate of 93.3%. The mean age of respondents was 27 (±6) years. About one-third (N = 106, 32.9%) of the participants reported that they were willing to use modern contraceptives. Orthodox Christians (AOR = 4.22, 95% CI 1.94–8.92), women aged 19 or older at first marriage (AOR = 2.89, 95% CI 1.16–7.23), and women who had never experienced a stillbirth (AOR = 3.85, 95%CI 1.37–10.78) were more likely to report being willing to use modern contraceptives. Additionally, perceived severity of an unwanted pregnancy (AOR = 1.71, 95% CI 1.57–1.93) and perceived self-efficacy to use contraceptives (AOR = 1.26, 95% CI 1.17–1.65) were positively associated with the willingness. Women who had never had an abortion were less likely to express willingness to use modern contraceptives (AOR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.19–0.92) and perceived importance of cultural and religious norms (AOR = 0.85, 95% CI 0.62–0.90) was also negatively associated with willingness.ConclusionsThe majority of women in this study were not willing to use modern contraceptive methods. A previous pregnancy outcome of stillbirth was associated with reduced willingness, while a prior abortion was associated with increased willingness. Perceived severity of unwanted pregnancy and higher self-efficacy surrounding contraceptive use were strong predictors of increased willingness to use contraceptives. Religious and cultural norms also appear to influence perception towards modern contraception. Thus, involvement of cultural and religious leaders and consideration of a woman’s reproductive history are recommended when designing health education messages on contraception for Afar pastoralist women.
Despite poverty reduction and increased promotion of improved nutrition practices in the community, undernutrition in Ethiopia remains a concern. The present study aimed to explore the demand and supply side barriers that limit the uptake of nutrition services among pregnant women from the rural communities of the Tigray Region, Northern Ethiopia. A community-based qualitative study was conducted in December through January 2017. A total of 90 key informant in-depth interviews and 14 focus group discussions were undertaken. Study participants were purposively selected for specific characteristics, along with health professionals deployed at various levels of the health system, including health posts, health centers, woreda health offices, and the regional health bureau. Study participants were asked to identify the barriers and implementation challenges that limit access to nutrition services for pregnant women. Participants’ responses were transcribed verbatim, without editing the grammar, to avoid losing meaning. The data were imported to ATLAS.ti 7 (qualitative data analysis software) for coding and analyzed using a thematic content analysis approach. The study findings indicated that the dietary quality of pregnant women in the study area remains poor and in some cases, poorer quality than pre-pregnancy. Across study sites, heavy workloads, food taboos and avoidances, low husband support, lack of economic resources, lack of awareness, low educational level of women, poor dietary habits, increased expenditure for cultural and religious festivities, “dependency syndrome”, low physical access to health facilities, poorly equipped health facilities, focus on child health and nutrition, poor coordination among nutrition specific and sensitive sectors, and limited sources of nutrition information were identified as the demand and supply side barriers limiting the uptake of nutrition services during pregnancy. In conclusion, the community would benefit from improved social behavior change communication on nutrition during pregnancy and multi-sectoral coordination among nutrition-specific and nutrition-sensitive sectors.
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