We examined egg production and quality responses of adding up to 7.5% defatted black soldier fly larvae meal (BSFLM) in a corn–soybean meal diet fed to pullets (19 to 27 wk of age). The concentration of CP and crude fat in BSFLM sample was 59.3 and 7.0% DM, respectively. A corn–soybean meal diet was formulated with 0 or 5.0 or 7.5% BSFLM and fed (n = 6) to a total of 108, 19-wk-old Shaver White pullets placed in conventional cages (6 birds/cage). The birds had free access to feed and water. Hen-day egg production (HDEP) and average egg weight were monitored daily and feed intake (FI) weekly. Egg quality parameters were assessed on individual eggs collected on the 5th d of wk 22, 24, and 26 and included individual EW (IEW), albumen height (HU), yolk color (YC), egg shell-breaking strength (SBS) and thickness (ST). A quadratic response (P < 0.02) was observed for HDEP, EW and egg mass. Specifically, birds fed 0 and 7.5% BSFLM diets had similar (P > 0.05) values for these parameters with birds fed 5.0% BSFLM showing lower (P < 0.05) HDEP than 0 or 7.5% BSFLM fed birds. The HDEP was 89.4, 84.8, and 87.8 for 0, 5.0, and 7.5% BSFLM, respectively. Feeding BSFLM linearly (P < 0.01) increased FI and feed conversion ratio (FCR) (FI/egg mass). There was no diet effect (P > 0.05) on IEW and HU, however, BSFLM linearly (P = 0.02) reduced CV of IEW. The IEW was 53.7, 52.3, and 53.0 g for 0, 5.0, and 7.5% BSFLM-fed birds, respectively and corresponding CV values of IEW were 7.9, 5.2, and 5.1%. Feeding BSFLM linearly (P < 0.01) increased YC, SBS, and ST. In conclusion, birds fed 7.5% BSFLM had similar HDEP and egg mass but poor FCR relative to corn–soybean meal diet without BSFLM. The effects of BSFLM on egg quality characteristics warrant further investigations.
Effects of total replacement of soybean meal ( SBM ) with defatted black soldier fly larvae meal ( BSFLM ) on egg production and quality, organ weight, and apparent retention ( AR ) of components were investigated in Shaver White hens from 28 to 43 wk of age. A total of 108 birds, (6 birds/cage) were assigned to three diets (6 replicates/diet). Diets were control corn–SBM diet and two additional diets made with the addition of either 10 or 15% BSFLM. Diets met or exceeded breeder specifications, contained TiO 2 as an indigestible marker, and were prepared in pellet form. Birds had free access to feed and water throughout the experiment. Hen-day egg production ( HDEP ) was monitored daily. Feed intake ( FI ) and body weight ( BW ) were monitored in 4-wk intervals. All eggs laid on the sixth day of wks 31, 35, 39, and 43 were used for egg weight ( EW ), Haugh units ( HU ), yolk color ( YC ), shell breaking strength ( SBS ), and shell thickness ( ST ). Excreta samples were collected for 3 consecutive days on wk 33 for AR and two birds/cage were necropsied at the end. There were no ( P > 0.05) diet effects on HDEP, FI, and HU. Inclusion of BSFLM linearly decreased ( P < 0.05) egg mass and feed conversion ratio ( FCR ) and quadratically increased ( P < 0.05) BW. There was no ( P > 0.05) interaction between diet and sampling time point on egg quality parameters. Inclusion of BSFLM increased SBF and YC linearly ( P < 0.05) and ST quadratically ( P = 0.028). Inclusion of BSFLM quadratically ( P ≤ 0.01) reduced empty ceca weight and increased liver weight and had no effect ( P > 0.05) on gizzard, small intestine, and pancreas weights. Feeding BSFLM linearly ( P = 0.001) and quadratically ( P = 0.007) increased apparent metabolizable energy ( AME ). Data showed that defatted BSFLM resulted in deeper orange yolks and improved eggshell quality; however, unfavorable FCR linked to lighter eggs as well as heavier birds and liver warrants further investigations.
Standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids (AA) and apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen (AMEn) in defatted black soldier fly larvae meal (BSFLM) were determined in broiler chicks. A total of 180-d-old male broiler chicks (Ross 708) were fed a commercial broiler starter diet to day 13 of age. On day 14, birds were weighed and placed in cages (10 birds per cage; n = 6) and allocated one of two semi-purified cornstarch-based diets. The diets were nitrogen-free diet (NFD) for estimating endogenous AA losses and 20% crude protein test diet with BSFLM as the sole source of AA. All diets had 0.5% titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) as an indigestible marker and the ratio of cornstarch to sucrose and soy oil in the test diet was identical to NFD to calculate AMEn by difference method. Birds were given feed and water ad libitum. Excreta samples were collected on days 17-20 and ileal digesta on day 21. The SID of lysine, methionine, cysteine, threonine, isoleucine, and valine was 86.3%, 88.7%, 72.8%, 85.5%, 89.6%, and 88.6%, respectively. Apparent retention of gross energy in BSFLM was 64.5% ± 2.27% and AMEn was 2902 ± 101 kcal kg −1 dry matter. The data will aid in accurate incorporation of BSFLM in poultry feeding programs.Key words: broilers, black soldier fly larvae meal, standardized ileal digestibility of amino acids, apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen.Résumé : La digestibilité iléale standardisée (SID -« standardized ileal digestibility ») des acides aminés (AA -« amino acids ») et l'énergie métabolisable apparente corrigée pour l'azote (AMEn -« apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen ») dans la moulée de larves de mouche soldat noire dégraissée (BFSLM -« black soldier fly larvae meal ») ont été déterminées chez les poussins à griller. Un total de 180 poussins de poulets à griller (Ross 708) mâles âgés d'un jour ont reçu une diète commerciale de départ pour les poulets à griller jusqu'au jour 13 d'âge. Au jour 14, les oiseaux ont été pesés et placés dans des cages (10 poussins par cage; n = 6) et assignés à l'une de deux diètes semi-purifiées à base d'amidon de maïs. Les diètes étaient : une diète sans azote (NFD -« nitrogen-free diet ») pour l'estimation des pertes endogènes d'AA et une diète test avec 20 % de protéines brutes avec le BSFLM comme seule source d'AA. Toutes les diètes comprenaient 0,5 % dioxyde de titane (TiO 2 ) comme marqueur indigeste et le rapport d'amidon de maïs au sucrose et à l'huile de soja dans la diète test était identique à la diète NFD pour pouvoir calculer l'AMEn par la méthode de différence. Les poulets ont reçu les aliments et l'eau ad libitum. Les échantillons d'excrétions ont été collectés des jours 17 à 20 et les digestas iléales au jour 21. La SID des AA lysine, méthionine, cystéine, thréonine, isoleucine et valine étaient de 86,3 %, 88,7 %, 72,8 %, 85,5 %, 89.6 % et 88,6 %, respectivement. La rétention apparente d'énergie brute dans le BSFLM était de 64,5 % ± 2,27 % et l'AMEn était de 2902 ± 101 kcal kg −1 de matières sèches. Ces ...
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