- Left bundle branch pacing (LBBP) is a novel pacing method and has been observed to have low and stable pacing thresholds in prior small short-term studies. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of LBBP in a large consecutive diverse group of patients with long-term follow up.
- This study prospectively enrolled 632 consecutive pacemaker patients with attempted LBBP from April 2017 to July 2019. Pacing parameters, complications, ECG, and echocardiographic measurements were assessed at implant, and during follow-up of 1, 6, 12 and 24 months.
- LBBP was successful in 618/632 (97.8%) patients according to strict criteria for LBB capture. Mean follow-up time was 18.6±6.7 months. 231 patients had follow-up over 2 years. LBB capture threshold at implant was 0.65±0.27 mV@0.5ms and 0.69±0.24 mV@0.5ms at 2-year follow-up. A significant decrease in QRS duration was observed in patients with LBBB (167.22 ± 18.99ms vs. 124.02 ± 24.15ms, p<0.001). Post implantation left ventricular ejection fraction improved in patients with QRS≥120ms (48.82±17.78 % vs. 58.12±13.04 %, p<0.001). The number of patients with moderate and severe tricuspid regurgitation decreased at 1-year. Permanent right bundle branch injury occurred in 55 (8.9%) patients. LBB capture threshold increased to more than 3 V or loss of bundle capture in 6 patients (1%), 2 patients of them had loss of conduction system capture. Two patients required lead revision due to dislodgement.
- This large observational study suggests that LBBP is feasible with high success rates and low complication rates during long term follow up. Therefore, LBBP appears to be a reliable method for physiological pacing for patients with either a bradycardia or heart failure pacing indication.
Emodin has recently been reported to have a powerful antiinflammatory effect, protecting the myocardium against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Pyroptosis is a proinflammatory programmed cell death that is related to many diseases. The present study investigated the effect of emodin on pyroptosis in cardiomyocytes.
Materials and methods
Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham, I/R, and I/R+Emodin groups. I/R model was subjected to 30 minutes’ ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery, followed by 2 hours of reperfusion. Cardiomyocytes were exposed to hypoxic conditions for 1 hour and normoxic conditions for 2 hours. The level of the pyroptosis was detected by Western blot, real-time PCR analysis, and ELISA.
The level of gasdermin D-N domains was upregulated in cardiomyocytes during I/R or hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) treatment. Moreover, emodin increased the rate of cell survival in vitro and decreased the myocardial infarct size in vivo via suppressing the levels of I/R-induced pyroptosis. Additionally, the expression of TLR4, MyD88, phospho-IκBα, phospho-NF-κB, and the NLRP3 inflammasome was significantly upregulated in cardiomyocytes subjected to H/R treatment, while emodin suppressed the expression of these proteins.
This study confirms that emodin treatment was able to alleviate myocardial I/R injury and inhibit pyroptosis in vivo and in vitro. The inhibitory effect of emodin on pyroptosis was mediated by suppressing the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB/NLRP3 inflammasome pathway. Therefore, emodin may provide an alternative treatment for myocardial I/R injury.
Aims: In the NOD-like receptor (NLR) family, the pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is closely related to the progression of atherosclerosis. This study aimed to assess the effects of curcumin on NLRP3 inflammasome in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced macrophages and explore its underlying mechanism.Methods: Human monocytic THP-1 cells were pretreated with curcumin for 1 h and subsequently induced with PMA for 48 h. Total protein was collected for Western blot analysis. Cytokine interleukin (IL)-1β release and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 translocation were detected by ELISA assay and cellular NF-κB translocation kit, respectively.Results: Curcumin significantly reduced the expression of NLRP3 and cleavage of caspase-1 and IL-1β secretion in PMA-induced macrophages. Moreover, Bay (a NF-κB inhibitor) treatment considerably suppressed the expression of NLRP3 inflammasome in PMA-induced THP-1 cells. Curcumin also markedly inhibited the upregulation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), phosphorylation level of IκB-α, and activation of NF-κB in PMA-induced macrophages. In addition, purinergic 2X7 receptor (P2X7R) siRNA was administered, and it significantly decreased NLRP3 inflammasome expression in PMA-induced macrophages. Furthermore, curcumin reversed PMA-stimulated P2X7R activation, which further reduced the expression of NLRP3 and cleavage of caspase-1 and IL-1β secretion. Silencing of P2X7R using siRNA also suppressed the activation of NF-κB pathway in PMA-induced macrophages, but P2X7R-silenced cells did not significantly decrease the expression of TLR4 and MyD88.Conclusion: Curcumin inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome through suppressing TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB and P2X7R pathways in PMA-induced macrophages.
MicroRNAs and autophagy play critical roles in cardiac hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R)‐induced injury. Here, we investigated the function of miR‐21 in regulating autophagy and identified the potential molecular mechanisms involved. To determine the role of miR‐21 in regulating autophagy, H9c2 cells were divided into the following six groups: control group, H/R group, (miR‐21+ H/R) group, (miR‐21‐negative control + H/R) group, (BEZ235+ H/R) group and (miR‐21+ BEZ235+ H/R) group. The cells underwent hypoxia for 1 hr and reoxygenation for 3 hrs. Cell count kit‐8 was used to evaluate cell function and apoptosis was analysed by Western blotting. Western blotting and transmission electron microscopy were used to investigate autophagy. We found that miR‐21 expression was down‐regulated, and autophagy was remarkably increased in H9c2 cells during H/R injury. Overexpression of miR‐21 with a miR‐21 precursor significantly inhibited autophagic activity and decreased apoptosis, accompanied by the activation of the AKT/mTOR pathway. In addition, treatment with BEZ235, a novel dual Akt/mTOR inhibitor, resulted in a significant increase in autophagy and apoptosis. However, we found that miR‐21‐mediated inhibition of apoptosis and autophagy was partly independent of Akt/mTOR activation, as demonstrated in cells treated with both miR‐21 and BEZ235. We showed that miR‐21 could inhibit H/R‐induced autophagy and apoptosis, which may be at least partially mediated by the Akt/mTOR signalling pathway.
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