We reevaluate the hadronic contributions to the muon magnetic anomaly, and to the running of the electromagnetic coupling constant at the Z-boson mass. We include new π + π − cross-section data from KLOE, all available multi-hadron data from BABAR, a reestimation of missing low-energy contributions using results on cross sections and process dynamics from BABAR, a reevaluation of all experimental contributions using the software package HVPTools together with a reanalysis of inter-experiment and inter-channel correlations, and a reevaluation of the continuum contributions from perturbative QCD at four loops. These improvements lead to a decrease in the hadronic contributions with respect to earlier evaluations. For the muon g − 2 we find lowest-order hadronic contributions of (692.3 ± 4.2) • 10 −10 and (701.5 ± 4.7) • 10 −10 for the e + e −based and τ-based analyses, respectively, and full Standard Model predictions that differ by 3.6σ and 2.4σ from the experimental value. For the e + e −-based five-quark hadronic contribution to α(M 2 Z) we find Δα (5) had (M 2 Z) = (274.9 ± 1.0) • 10 −4. The reduced electromagnetic coupling strength at M Z leads to an increase by 12 GeV in the central value of the Higgs boson mass obtained by the standard Gfitter fit to electroweak precision data.
Rolling circle amplification (RCA) is an isothermal enzymatic process where a short DNA or RNA primer is amplified to form a long single stranded DNA or RNA using a circular DNA template and special DNA or RNA polymerases. The RCA product is a concatemer containing tens to hundreds of tandem repeats that are complementary to the circular template. The power, simplicity, and versatility of the DNA amplification technique have made it an attractive tool for biomedical research and nanobiotechnology. Traditionally, RCA has been used to develop sensitive diagnostic methods for a variety of targets including nucleic acids (DNA, RNA), small molecules, proteins, and cells. RCA has also attracted significant attention in the field of nanotechnology and nanobiotechnology. The RCA-produced long, single-stranded DNA with repeating units has been used as template for the periodic assembly of nanospecies. Moreover, since RCA products can be tailor-designed by manipulating the circular template, RCA has been employed to generate complex DNA nanostructures such as DNA origami, nanotubes, nanoribbons and DNA based metamaterials. These functional RCA based nanotechnologies have been utilized for biodetection, drug delivery, designing bioelectronic circuits and bioseparation. In this review, we introduce the fundamental engineering principles used to design RCA nanotechnologies, discuss recently developed RCA-based diagnostics and bioanalytical tools, and summarize the use of RCA to construct multivalent molecular scaffolds and nanostructures for applications in biology, diagnostics and therapeutics.
Chemical analyses of ancient organics absorbed into pottery jars from the early Neolithic village of Jiahu in Henan province in China have revealed that a mixed fermented beverage of rice, honey, and fruit (hawthorn fruit and͞or grape) was being produced as early as the seventh millennium before Christ (B.C.). This prehistoric drink paved the way for unique cereal beverages of the proto-historic second millennium B.C., remarkably preserved as liquids inside sealed bronze vessels of the Shang and Western Zhou Dynasties. These findings provide direct evidence for fermented beverages in ancient Chinese culture, which were of considerable social, religious, and medical significance, and help elucidate their earliest descriptions in the Shang Dynasty oracle inscriptions.archaeological chemistry ͉ Neolithic period ͉ Shang Dynasty ͉ alcohol ͉ saccharification
China is developing a new generation of geostationary meteorological satellites called Fengyun-4 (FY-4), which is planned for launch beginning in 2016. Following upon the current FY-2 satellite series, FY-4 will carry four new instruments: the Advanced Geosynchronous Radiation Imager (AGRI), the Geosynchronous Interferometric Infrared Sounder (GIIRS), the Lightning Mapping Imager (LMI), and the Space Environment Package (SEP). The first satellite of the FY-4 series launched on 11 December 2016 is experimental, and the following four or more satellites will be operational. The main objectives of the FY-4 series are to monitor rapidly changing weather systems and to improve warning and forecasting capabilities. The FY-4 measurements are aimed at accomplishing 1) high temporal and spatial resolution imaging in 14 spectral bands from the visible, near-infrared, and infrared (IR) spectral regions; 2) lightning imaging; and 3) high-spectral-resolution IR sounding observations over China and adjacent regions. FY-4 will also enhance the space weather monitoring and warning with SEP. Current products from FY-2 will be improved by FY-4, and a number of new products will also be introduced. FY-4’s sounding and imaging data will be used to improve applications in a wide range of ocean, land, and atmosphere monitoring plus forecasting extreme weather (especially typhoons and thunderstorms); overall, FY-4 will contribute to more accurate understanding and forecasting of China’s weather, climate, environment, and natural disasters. This new generation of Chinese geostationary weather satellites is being developed in parallel with the new generation of geostationary meteorological satellite systems from the international community of satellite providers and is intended to be an important contribution to the global observing system.
Results of a search for new phenomena in final states with an energetic jet and large missing transverse momentum are reported. The search uses proton-proton collision data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.2 fb −1 at ffiffi ffi s p ¼ 13 TeV collected in 2015 with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. Events are required to have at least one jet with a transverse momentum above 250 GeV and no leptons. Several signal regions are considered with increasing missing-transverse-momentum requirements between E miss T > 250 GeV and E miss T > 700 GeV. Good agreement is observed between the number of events in data and Standard Model predictions. The results are translated into exclusion limits in models with large extra spatial dimensions, pair production of weakly interacting dark-matter candidates, and the production of supersymmetric particles in several compressed scenarios.
A search for heavy Majorana neutrinos in events containing a pair of high-p T leptons of the same charge and high-p T jets is presented. The search uses 20.3 fb −1 of pp collision data collected with the ATLAS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider with a centre-of-mass energy of √ s = 8 TeV. The data are found to be consistent with the background-only hypothesis based on the Standard Model expectation. In the context of a Type-I seesaw mechanism, limits are set on the production cross-section times branching ratio for production of heavy Majorana neutrinos in the mass range between 100 and 500 GeV. The limits are subsequently interpreted as limits on the mixing between the heavy Majorana neutrinos and the Standard Model neutrinos. In the context of a left-right symmetric model, limits on the production cross-section times branching ratio are set with respect to the masses of heavy Majorana neutrinos and heavy gauge bosons W R and Z . Conclusions 20The ATLAS collaboration 28 IntroductionThe discovery of mixing between generations of neutrinos  has established that at least two of the neutrinos have small non-zero masses. A unique feature of neutrinos compared to other fermions in the Standard Model (SM) is that neutrinos could be their own antiparticles, so-called Majorana fermions. If this is realised in nature, then the unusually low mass scale of the light neutrinos could be generated by a seesaw mechanism  which -1 -JHEP07(2015)162 Figure 1. The tree-level diagram for the production of a heavy Majorana neutrino (N ) in the mTISM model. Lepton flavour is denoted by α and β. Lepton flavour is assumed to be conserved, such that α = β. The W boson produced from the N decay is on-shell and, in this case, decays hadronically.would imply the existence of yet unobserved heavy Majorana neutrino states. The nature of Majorana neutrinos would explicitly allow for lepton number violation.In this paper, a search is presented for heavy Majorana neutrinos using the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The data sample was collected in 2012 during √ s = 8 TeV pp collisions and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 20.3 fb −1 . Heavy Majorana neutrinos with masses above 50 GeV are considered. In this regime, the production and subsequent decay of heavy Majorana neutrinos could lead to a final state containing exactly two charged leptons, where the leptons may have the same or opposite charge in equal fractions of the heavy neutrino decays. Only lepton pairs of the same charge (same-sign) are considered as there is a smaller expected SM background for pairs of same-sign leptons than for pairs of leptons of opposite charge (opposite-sign). The search includes the ee and µµ final states.The search is guided by two theoretical models. In the first model, the SM is extended in the simplest way to include right-handed neutrinos , such that light neutrino masses are generated by a Type-I seesaw mechanism or by radiative corrections . In this minimal Type-I seesaw mechanism...
The reconstruction of the signal from hadrons and jets emerging from the proton–proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and entering the ATLAS calorimeters is based on a three-dimensional topological clustering of individual calorimeter cell signals. The cluster formation follows cell signal-significance patterns generated by electromagnetic and hadronic showers. In this, the clustering algorithm implicitly performs a topological noise suppression by removing cells with insignificant signals which are not in close proximity to cells with significant signals. The resulting topological cell clusters have shape and location information, which is exploited to apply a local energy calibration and corrections depending on the nature of the cluster. Topological cell clustering is established as a well-performing calorimeter signal definition for jet and missing transverse momentum reconstruction in ATLAS.
The luminosity determination for the ATLAS detector at the LHC during pp collisions at 8 TeV in 2012 is presented. The evaluation of the luminosity scale is performed using several luminometers, and comparisons between these luminosity detectors are made to assess the accuracy, consistency and long-term stability of the results. A luminosity uncertainty of is obtained for the of pp collision data delivered to ATLAS at 8 TeV in 2012.
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