BackgroundAnaplasmosis is caused by obligate intracellular bacteria in the genus Anaplasma. These bacterial pathogens are transmitted by ticks and impact both human and animal health. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and molecular characterization of Anaplasma spp. in ruminants sampled in Xinjiang, northwest China.MethodsA survey was performed in August 2012 in rural areas of six counties in Xinjiang province. A total of 250 blood samples from ruminants were collected and tested for the presence of Anaplasma spp. by PCR. Positive samples were genetically characterized based on the 16S rRNA and msp4 genes.ResultsThe results showed a high prevalence of Anaplasma spp. in ruminants, with at least three different Anaplasma species detected (A. phagocytophilum, A. bovis and A. ovis). The mean prevalence of single infection with each species was 17.6% (A. phagocytophilum), 4.8% (A. bovis) and 40.5% (A. ovis). Coinfection occurred in 20 (8.0%) animals. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene of A. bovis and A. phagocytophilum revealed a higher degree of genetic diversity for the latter. The results for A. ovis showed genotypic variation among geographic regions in China. In addition, a closely related isolate to the canine pathogen A. platys was identified in ruminants.ConclusionsThis survey revealed a high prevalence of Anaplasma sp. infections in sheep and cattle in the northwestern border regions of China, indicating the potential risk of transboundary disease.
Anaplasma spp. are tick-transmitted bacteria that infect a wide variety of wild and domestic animals. These pathogens exhibit a high degree of biological diversity, broad geographical distribution, and represent a serious threat to veterinary and public health worldwide.ResultsA novel Anaplasma species was identified in Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis (Ixodidae) in northwestern China and was molecularly characterized by comparison of 16S rRNA, gltA, and groEL gene sequences. Of the 414 samples tested, 24 (5.8%) were positive for this Anaplasma species. On the basis of the 16S rRNA gene, this organism has been found to be closely related to and exhibit the highest sequence similarity with A. capra (99.8–99.9%) that was identified in goats and humans in northern China, but was distinct from other known Anaplasma species. Sequence analysis of the gltA and groEL genes revealed that this Anaplasma species was distinct from A. capra considering the lower sequence identity (88.6–88.7% for gltA and 90.6–91.0% for groEL) and a divergent phylogenetic position. Therefore, we described this Anaplasma species as A. capra-like bacteria.ConclusionsThe present study reports a potential novel Anaplasma species closely related to A. capra in H. qinghaiensis in northwestern China. The zoonotic potential of A. capra-like bacteria needs to be further determined.
BackgroundTo date, anaplasmosis has been reported to be a subclinical disease in Indian and Arabian one-humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) and llamas (Lama glama). However, no information on Anaplasma infection in two-humped Bactrian camels (Camelus bactrianus) in China has been published to date. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of Anaplasma spp. in domestic Bactrian camels and ticks in Xinjiang, China.FindingsA total of 382 ticks were collected from the Bactrian camels and from environmental sources. Of these, 84 were morphologically identified as belonging to the Rhipicephalus sanguineus group and genetically identified (12S rDNA, 16S rDNA and the cytochrome c oxidase 1 genes) as R. sanguineus group ticks (temporally designated as Rhipicephalus sp. Xinjiang). PCR testing showed that 7.2 % (20/279) of the camels harbored Anaplasma platys DNA. However, microscopic examination revealed no A. platys inclusions in blood smears from the camels. The PCR prevalence of A. platys DNA was 9.5 % (6/63) in Rhipicephalus sp. Xinjiang from the Bactrian camels and 14.3 % (3/21) in Rhipicephalus sp. Xinjiang from the vegetation. A. platys DNA was not detected by PCR in other tick species (Hyalomma asiaticum, Dermacentor niveus and Hyalomma dromedarii), and no other Anaplasma species were detected in these samples.ConclusionsThis is the first report of A. platys in Bactrian camels in Xinjiang, China. The moderate positivity observed indicates that these animals might be a natural host for this pathogen in China.
The application of anti-tick vaccine has been shown to be the most promising alternative strategy compared to the current use of acaricides that suffer from a number of serious limitations. The success of this method is dependent upon identification and cloning of potential tick vaccine antigens. Previously, we have cloned 21 positive clones (named from Hq02 to Hq22) by immunoscreening complimentary DNA (cDNA) libraries of Haemaphysalis qinghaiensis; however, some of those clones did not contain open reading frames (ORF). In this study, we amplified the entire sequence of Hq07 by using rapid amplification of the cDNA ends. Hq07 contains an ORF of 1,233 bp that encodes for 410 amino acid residues with a coding capacity of 47 kDa. Search of the cloned sequences against GenBank revealed that Hq07 is a calreticulin (CRT)-similar clone and designated HqCRT. Expression analysis by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed that this gene is ubiquitously expressed at different developmental stages and in different tissues of H. qinghaiensis. The gene was expressed as glutathione S-transferase-fused proteins in a prokaryotic system. Western blot analysis revealed that native HqCRT was secreted into their hosts by ticks during blood sucking. Vaccination of sheep with rHqCRT conferred protective immunity against ticks, resulting in 54.3% mortality in adult ticks, compared to the 38.7% death rate in the control group. These results demonstrated that rHqCRT might be a useful vaccine candidate antigen for biological control of H. qinghaiensis.
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