Available online xxxx Accepted by X-P Chen a b s t r a c t This paper integrates social norm constructs from different disciplines into an integrated model. Norms exist in the objective social environment in the form of behavioral regularities, patterns of sanctioning, and institutionalized practices and rules. They exist subjectively in perceived descriptive norms, perceived injunctive norms, and personal norms. We also distil and delineate three classic theories of why people adhere to norms: internalization, social identity, and rational choice. Additionally, we articulate an emerging theory of how perceived descriptive and injunctive norms function as two distinct navigational devices that guide thoughts and behavior in different ways, which we term ''social autopilot'' and ''social radar.'' For each type of norms, we suggest how it may help to understand cultural dynamics at the micro level (the acquisition, variable influence and creative mutation of cultural knowledge) and the macro level (the transmission, diffusion and evolution of cultural practices). Having laid the groundwork for an integrated study of norm-normology, we then introduce the articles of this special issue contributing theoretical refinements and empirical evidence from different methods and levels of analysis. Managerial implications are discussed.
This paper presents 6-point subdivision schemes with cubic precision. We first derive a relation between the 4-point interpolatory subdivision and the quintic B-spline refinement. By using the relation, we further propose the counterparts of cubic and quintic B-spline refinements based on 6-point interpolatory subdivision schemes. It is proved that the new family of 6-point combined subdivision schemes has higher smoothness and better polynomial reproduction property than the B-spline counterparts. It is also showed that, both having cubic precision, the well-known Hormann-Sabin's family increase the degree of polynomial generation and smoothness in exchange of the increase of the support width, while the new family can keep the support width unchanged and maintain higher degree of polynomial generation and smoothness.
This work is a continuation of the earlier article . We establish new numerical methods for solving systems of Volterra integral equations with cardinal splines. The unknown functions are expressed as a linear combination of horizontal translations of certain cardinal spline functions with small compact supports. Then a simple system of equations on the coefficients is acquired for the system of integral equations. It is relatively straight forward to solve the system of unknowns and an approximation of the original solution with high accuracy is achieved. Several cardinal splines are applied in the paper to enhance the accuracy. The sufficient condition for the existence of the inverse matrix is examined and the convergence rate is investigated. We demonstrated the value of the methods using several examples.
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