With the development of smart grid, demand-side resources (DSR) will play an increasingly important role in the power balance of supply and demand. In addition, the requirement of a low-carbon smart grid means some policy backgrounds, such as carbon emissions trading (CET), should not be ignored. Under these circumstances, it is a good idea to construct a novel unit commitment (UC) model. This paper proposes a model that not only takes advantage of various resources on the demand side, such as electric vehicles, demand response, and distributed generation, but also reflects the effects of CET on generation schedule. Then, an improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO) algorithm is applied to solve the problem. In numerical studies, we analyze the impacts of DSR and CET on the results of UC, respectively. In addition, two meaningful experiments are conducted to study the approaches to allocate emission quotas and the effects of price transmission mechanism.
Index Terms-Carbon emission quotas, carbon emissions trading (CET), demand response (DR), distributed generation (DG), electric vehicle (EV), improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO), smart grid, unit commitment (UC).
Index bIndex of bus. i Index of generating unit. j Index of electric vehicle (EV). t Index of hour. Variables and Functions DGa t Distributed generation (DG) used by its owners at time t. DGb t Output of grid-connected DG at time t. DGC Total cost (TC) of DG. DRC TC of demand response (DR). Emission of unit i at time t. E V2G,t Emission of vehicle-to-grid (V2G) at time t. FC i Fuel cost of unit i. I i,t On/off status of unit i at time t. Iter Current number of iteration. pc Probability of crossover. P i,t Output of unit i at time t. pm Probability of mutation. SC i,t Start-up cost of unit i at time t. SoC t,j State of charge of EV j at time t. TC TC of unit commitment (UC). V2GC TC of V2G. V2G t Output of V2G at time t. V2G t,j Output of V2G of EV j at time t. X on i,t , X off i,t Duration of continuously on/off of unit i at time t. η t Penetration rate of DG at time t.
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