Recent evidence suggests that activation of airway C-fibers, besides causing afferent transmission, also causes release of transmitters from peripheral endings, probably via local axon reflexes, resulting in effects on vascular and bronchial smooth muscle, i.e., vasodilatation, increase in vascular permeability, and bronchoconstriction. In the present study, the release of tachykinins was investigated in the perfused guinea pig lung by various ways of neuronal activation. Substance-P-like immunoreactivity (SP-LI) and neurokinin-A-like immunoreactivity (NKA-LI) was determined by radioimmunoassay in the perfusates. A significantly increased outflow of both SP-LI and NKA-LI was observed during perfusion of the lung with high potassium concentration (60 mM), the C-fiber activator capsaicin (1 microM), bradykinin (1 microM), histamine (100 microM), or the nicotinic agonist dimethylphenyl piperazinium (DMPP) (32 microM). Release of both SP-LI and NKA-LI could also be achieved by electrical stimulation of vagal nerves. The percental increase varied from 80 to 1,000% depending on the kind of stimulus. The release of tachykinins by K+ or capsaicin was greatly reduced in calcium-free medium. Release by histamine was completely inhibited by 1 microM mepyramine, and release by DMPP was abolished by 20 microM hexamethonium. High performance liquid chromatography indicated that NKA-LI consisted of several cross-reacting substances, presumably other peptides of the tachykinin family. Among the isolated mammalian tachykinins, NKA was the most potent one to contract tracheal smooth muscle of guinea pigs in vitro, followed by neurokinin B and by SP. Both NKA and SP relaxed the guinea pig pulmonary artery with similar potency.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
In this paper, we study automatic keyphrase generation.Although conventional approaches to this task show promising results, they neglect correlation among keyphrases, resulting in duplication and coverage issues. To solve these problems, we propose a new sequence-to-sequence architecture for keyphrase generation named CorrRNN, which captures correlation among multiple keyphrases in two ways. First, we employ a coverage vector to indicate whether the word in the source document has been summarized by previous phrases to improve the coverage for keyphrases. Second, preceding phrases are taken into account to eliminate duplicate phrases and improve result coherence. Experiment results show that our model significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art method on benchmark datasets in terms of both accuracy and diversity.
Glutathione (GSH) and GSH-related enzymes constitute the most important defense system that protects cells from free radical, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy attacks. In this study, we aim to explore the potential role and regulatory mechanism of the GSH redox cycle in drug resistance in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells. We found that temozolomide (TMZ)-resistant glioma cells displayed lower levels of endogenous reactive oxygen species and higher levels of total antioxidant capacity and GSH than sensitive cells. Moreover, the expression of glutathione reductase (GSR), the key enzyme of the GSH redox cycle, was higher in TMZ-resistant cells than in sensitive cells. Furthermore, silencing GSR in drug-resistant cells improved the sensitivity of cells to TMZ or cisplatin. Conversely, the over-expression of GSR in sensitive cells resulted in resistance to chemotherapy. In addition, the GSR enzyme partially prevented the oxidative stress caused by pro-oxidant Lbuthionine -sulfoximine. The modulation of redox state by GSH or L-buthionine -sulfoximine regulated GSR-mediated drug resistance, suggesting that the action of GSR in drug resistance is associated with the modulation of redox homeostasis. Intriguingly, a trend toward shorter progress-free survival was observed among GBM patients with high GSR expression. These results indicated that GSR is involved in mediating drug resistance and is a potential target for improving GBM treatment.
Copy number alteration (CNA) is a major contributor to genome instability, a hallmark of cancer. Here, we studied genomic alterations in single primary tumor cells and circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from the same patient. Single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) in single cells from both samples occurred sporadically, whereas CNAs among primary tumor cells emerged accumulatively rather than abruptly, converging toward the CNA in CTCs. Focal CNAs affecting the gene and the gene were observed only in a minor portion of primary tumor cells but were present in all CTCs, suggesting a strong selection toward metastasis. Single-cell structural variant (SV) analyses revealed a two-step mechanism, a complex rearrangement followed by gene amplification, for the simultaneous formation of anomalous CNAs in multiple chromosome regions. Integrative CNA analyses of 97 CTCs from 23 patients confirmed the convergence of CNAs and revealed single, concurrent, and mutually exclusive CNAs that could be the driving events in cancer metastasis.
Aim to evaluate the efficacy and safety of glucocorticoid monotherapy vs combination therapy of cyclophosphamide (CYC) for IgG4 related disease (IgG4-RD). 102 newly diagnosed IgG4-RD patients were enrolled and assigned to 2 groups: Group I was prednisone monotherapy (0.5–1.0 mg/kg.d, tapered gradually) and Group II was glucocorticoid and CYC (50–100 mg per day). Patients were assessed at different periods. Primary end point was relapse rate; secondary end points included response, remission rate and adverse effects. 52 patients were in Group I and 50 in Group II. At 1 month, both groups achieved obvious improvement. Accumulated relapse rate during 1 year was 38.5% in Group 1, including 12 cases with clinical relapse and 8 patients manifesting only serological relapse; whereas there was 12.0% of relapse in Group 2, only 1 with clinical relapse and other 5 patients got serological relapse. The mean flare time in Group II was significantly longer than that in Group I. All relapsing patients in Group I were sensitive to immunosuppressants. Most patients involving more than 6 organs in Group I relapsed during 1 year. IgG4 levels of relapse cases were significantly higher than non-relapsing patients at baseline. Bile duct, lacrimal glands and lymph nodes were commonly relapsed organs in Group I.
Immunohistochemistry staining of p53 is a cheap and simple method to detect aberrant function of p53. However, there are some discrepancies between the result of immunohistochemistry staining and mutation analysis. This study attempted to find a new definition of p53 staining by its staining pattern. Immunohistochemistry staining of p53 and TP53 gene mutation analysis were performed in 148 gastric cancer patients. Also SNP-CGH array analysis was conducted to four cases. Positive staining of p53 was observed in 88 (59.5%) tumors. Tumors with positive p53 staining showed malignant features compared to negative tumors. Mutation of TP53 gene was observed in 29 (19.6%) tumors with higher age and differentiated type. In positive p53 tumors, two types could be distinguished; aberrant type and scattered type. With comparison to TP53 gene mutation analysis, all the scattered type had wild-type TP53 gene (P = 0.0003). SNP-CGH array showed that scattered-type tumors had no change in the structure of chromosome 17. P53-scattered-type staining tumors may reflect a functionally active nonmutated TP53 gene. In interpretation of p53 immunohistochemistry staining, distinguishing p53-positive tumors by their staining pattern may be important in gastric cancer.
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