A total of 84.8% of the bone underlying mucosa with BBF had some form of osteitis in ethmoid sinus, and approximately 46.4% of CRS patients were from a subgroup with both BBF and osteitis. The volume of BBF correlated well with severity of osteitis in CRS patients.
This study examined the temporal variation of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and its relationship with climatic factors in the Changbai Mountain Natural Reserve (CMNR) during 2000 -2009. The results showed as follows. The average NDVI values increased at a rate of 0.0024 year -1 . The increase rate differed with vegetation types, such as 0.0034 year -1 for forest and 0.0017 year -1 for tundra. Trend analyses revealed a consistent NDVI increase at the start and end of the growing season but little variation or decrease observed in July during the study period. The NDVI in CMNR showed a stronger correlation with temperature than with precipitation, especially in spring and autumn. A stronger correlation was observed between NDVI and temperature in the tundra zone (2,000-2,600m) than in the coniferous forest (1,100-1,700m) and Korean pine-broadleaved mixed forest (700-1,100m) zones. The results indicate that vegetation at higher elevations is more sensitive to temperature change. NDVI variation had a strong correlation with temperature change (r=0.7311, p<0.01) but less significant correlation with precipitation change. The result indicates that temperature can serve as a main indicator of vegetation sensitivity in the CMNR.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a debilitating disorder that affects movement. Inflammation-mediated endothelial dysfunction has been found to be involved in neurodegenerative diseases, including PD. More than 40 PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) mutations have been found in PD patients. The effects of PINK1 in vascular inflammation are as yet unknown. In this study, our findings revealed that PINK1 can be increased by the inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α in primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs). We found that wild-type PINK1 prevents expression of the adhesion molecule vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), thus inhibiting the attachment of monocytes to brain endothelial cells. However, PINK1G309D, the loss-of-function mutation associated with early-onset familial PD, promotes expression of VCAM-1 and exacerbates attachment of monocytes to brain endothelial cells. Mechanism studies revealed that overexpression of wild-type PINK1 inhibits the VCAM-1 promoter by inhibiting the transcriptional activity of interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1). However, PINK1G309D promotes the VCAM-1 promoter by increasing the transcriptional activity of IRF-1.
There is a wide diversity of landforms in China. The topography of three major terraces, decreasing in height stepwise from west to east, was formed by the early Miocene. With the commencement of the Great Northern Hemisphere Glaciations (GHGs) and the glacial-interglacial cycles in the Pleistocene, thick loess deposits accumulated in north China, and fluvial terraces were formed and lakes expanded and contracted in eastern and central China. The earliest evidence of hominins in China is dated to ~1.7 Ma; they occupied the monsoon-dominated region for a long interval, until the late Pleistocene, ~50 ka. In this study, we investigated a large area rich in the relics and artifacts of early man. The results indicate that the early humans occupied riverine areas, especially medium-sized fluvial basins, and lake shores. Even in the relatively recent geological past, the occupation and abandonment of settlements were directly forced by the shifting of sand dune fields in the desert-loess transitional zone, which in turn was closely associated with variations in the monsoon climate and vegetation patterns. Our observations indicate that landforms were one of the main determinants of early human behavior, in that loess tableland, large alluvial plains, desert-Gobi areas, and the Tibetan Plateau, were not suitable environments for early human settlement. We infer that the early humans in China adapted their behavior to specific landforms and landform processes. The monsoon climate, which shapes the large-scale step-like pattern of fluvial landforms, promotes vegetation coverage and dominates soil formation, provides a crucial context for early human adaptation. The adaptation of early humans to earth surface processes in East Asia is investigated for the first time in this study. Future investigations will provide further information that will increase our understanding of the linkage between early human behavior and landform processes in East Asia.
These results indicate that in vitro treatment with an aqueous extract from PH limits cell proliferation, induces apoptosis, and causes cell cycle arrest of A549 cells; this suggests that it may have potential as a therapy for lung adenocarcinoma.
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