Topoisomerase I (Top1) is an abundant and essential enzyme. Top1 is the selective target of camptothecins, which are effective anticancer agents. Top1-DNA cleavage complexes can also be trapped by various endogenous and exogenous DNA lesions including mismatches, abasic sites and carcinogenic adducts. Tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase (Tdp1) is one of the repair enzymes for Top1-DNA covalent complexes. Tdp1 forms a multiprotein complex that includes poly(ADP) ribose polymerase (PARP). PARP-deficient cells are hypersensitive to camptothecins and functionally deficient for Tdp1. We will review recent developments in several pathways involved in the repair of Top1 cleavage complexes and the role of Chk1 and Chk2 checkpoint kinases in the cellular responses to Top1 inhibitors. The genes conferring camptothecin hypersensitivity are compiled for humans, budding yeast and fission yeast. A. Introduction: Mammalian Topoisomerase Families, Top1 Functions and Catalytic MechanismsSeven topoisomerase genes are encoded in the human nuclear genome . The enzymes (abbreviated Topo or Top) have been numbered in the order of their discovery except for the most recent enzyme, mitochondrial topoisomerase I (Top1mt) [2,3]. Vertebrate cells contain two Top1 (Top1 for the nuclear genome and Top1mt for the mitochondrial genome), two Top2 (Top2α and β) and two Top3 (Top3α and β). The seventh topoisomerase is Spo11, whose expression is restricted to germ cells. Top3α forms heterodimers with BLM (the gene product deficient in Bloom syndrome) and is functionally related to the resolution of post-replicative hemicatenanes and recombination intermediates [4,5]. Top1 proteins belong to the family of the tyrosine recombinases (which includes λ-integrase, Flip and Cre recombinases), and Top2 is related to bacterial gyrase and Topo IV, which are the targets of quinolone antibiotics.Topoisomerases and tyrosine recombinases nick and religate DNA by forming a covalent enzyme-DNA intermediate between an enzyme catalytic tyrosine residue and the end of the broken DNA (Fig. 1). These covalent intermediates are generally referred to as "cleavage (or cleavable) complexes" (Fig. 2). Topoisomerases have also been classified in two groups depending whether they cleave and religate one strand (type I) or both strands (type II) of the DNA duplex. Type I enzymes include Top1 (nuclear), Top1mt, Top3α and β and type II enzymes include Top2α and β and Spo11.Top1 is essential in vertebrates and flies but not in yeast. Knocking out the TOP1 gene results in early embryonic lethality in mouse  and fly . By contrast, yeast survives in the absence *To whom reprint requests should be addressed, Bldg. 37, Rm. 5068, NIH, Bethesda, MD 20892-4255 . Top1 is expressed constitutively throughout the cell cycle  and is concentrated in the nucleolus [10,11]. Its main function is to relieve both positive and negative DNA supercoiling generated by transcription and replication, and possibly DNA repair and chromatin remodeling [1,. The mechanistic sim...
Camptothecin (CPT) derivatives are effective anticancer drugs, especially against solid tumors. As CPTs are chemically unstable and have clinical limitations, we have synthesized indenoisoquinolines as novel topoisomerase I (Top1) inhibitors. We presently report two indenoisoquinoline derivatives, NSC 725776 and NSC 724998, which have been selected for therapeutic development. Both are potent Top1 inhibitors and induce Top1 cleavage at unique genomic positions compared with CPT. Consistent with Top1 poisoning, protein-linked DNA breaks were detected in cells treated with NSC 725776 and NSC 724998 at nanomolar concentrations. Those druginduced protein-linked DNA breaks persisted longer after drug removal than those produced by CPT. Studies in human cells in culture show that NSC 725776 and NSC 724998 exert antiproliferative activity at submicromolar concentrations. Furthermore, NSC 725776 and NSC 724998 show crossresistance in cells deficient or silenced for Top1, which is consistent with their selective Top1 targeting. Similar to other known Top1 inhibitors, NSC 725776-treated and NSC 724998-treated cells show an arrest of cell cycle progression in both S and G 2 -M and a dependence on functional p53 for their cytotoxicity. Dose-dependent ;-H2AX foci formation was readily observed in cells treated with NSC 725776 and NSC 724998. These ;-H2AX foci were detectable at pharmacologically relevant doses for up to 24 h and thus could be used as biomarkers for clinical trials (phase 0). [Cancer Res 2007; 67(21):10397-405]
Triptolide, a principal bioactive ingredient of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F, has attracted extensive exploration due to its unique structure of a diterpenoid triepoxide and multiple biological activities. This review will focus on the structural modifications, structure-activity relationships, pharmacology, and clinical development of triptolide in the last forty years.
Receptor-interacting protein (RIP)3 is a critical regulator of necroptosis and has been demonstrated to be associated with various diseases, suggesting that its inhibitors are promising in the clinic. However, there have been few RIP3 inhibitors reported as yet. B-RafV600E inhibitors are an important anticancer drug class for metastatic melanoma therapy. In this study, we found that 6 B-Raf inhibitors could inhibit RIP3 enzymatic activity in vitro. Among them, dabrafenib showed the most potent inhibition on RIP3, which was achieved by its ATP-competitive binding to the enzyme. Dabrafenib displayed highly selective inhibition on RIP3 over RIP1, RIP2 and RIP5. Moreover, only dabrafenib rescued cells from RIP3-mediated necroptosis induced by the necroptosis-induced combinations, that is, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand or Fas ligand plus Smac mimetic and the caspase inhibitor z-VAD. Dabrafenib decreased the RIP3-mediated Ser358 phosphorylation of mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL) and disrupted the interaction between RIP3 and MLKL. Notably, RIP3 inhibition of dabrafenib appeared to be independent of its B-Raf inhibition. Dabrafenib was further revealed to prevent acetaminophen-induced necrosis in normal human hepatocytes, which is considered to be mediated by RIP3. In acetaminophen-overdosed mouse models, dabrafenib was found to apparently ease the acetaminophen-caused liver damage. The results indicate that the anticancer B-RafV600E inhibitor dabrafenib is a RIP3 inhibitor, which could serve as a sharp tool for probing the RIP3 biology and as a potential preventive or therapeutic agent for RIP3-involved necroptosis-related diseases such as acetaminophen-induced liver damage.
The global spread of SARS-CoV-2 requires an urgent need to find effective therapeutics for the treatment of COVID-19. We developed a data-driven drug repositioning framework, which applies both machine learning and statistical analysis approaches to systematically integrate and mine large-scale knowledge graph, literature and transcriptome data to discover the potential drug candidates against SARS-CoV-2. The retrospective study using the past SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV data demonstrated that our machine learning based method can successfully predict effective drug candidates : bioRxiv preprint against a specific coronavirus. Our in silico screening followed by wet-lab validation indicated that a poly-ADP-ribose polymerase 1 (PARP1) inhibitor, CVL218, currently in Phase I clinical trial, may be repurposed to treat COVID-19. Our in vitro assays revealed that CVL218 can exhibit effective inhibitory activity against SARS-CoV-2 replication without obvious cytopathic effect. In addition, we showed that CVL218 is able to suppress the CpG-induced IL-6 production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, suggesting that it may also have anti-inflammatory effect that is highly relevant to the prevention immunopathology induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection. Further pharmacokinetic and toxicokinetic evaluation in rats and monkeys showed a high concentration of CVL218 in lung and observed no apparent signs of toxicity, indicating the appealing potential of this drug for the treatment of the pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection. Moreover, molecular docking simulation suggested that CVL218 may bind to the N-terminal domain of nucleocapsid (N) protein of SARS-CoV-2, providing a possible model to explain its antiviral action. We also proposed several possible mechanisms to explain the antiviral activities of PARP1 inhibitors against SARS-CoV-2, based on the data present in this study and previous evidences reported in the literature. In summary, the PARP1 inhibitor CVL218 discovered by our data-driven drug repositioning framework can serve as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of COVID-19.
Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is a critical DNA repair enzyme in the base excision repair pathway. Inhibitors of this enzyme comprise a new type of anticancer drug that selectively kills cancer cells by targeting homologous recombination repair defects. Since 2010, important advances have been achieved in PARP-1 inhibitors. Specifically, the approval of olaparib in 2014 for the treatment of ovarian cancer with BRCA mutations validated PARP-1 as an anticancer target and established its clinical importance in cancer therapy. Here, we provide an update on PARP-1 inhibitors, focusing on breakthroughs in their clinical applications and investigations into relevant mechanisms of action, biomarkers, and drug resistance. We also provide an update on the design strategies and the structural types of PARP-1 inhibitors. Opportunities and challenges in PARP-1 inhibitors for cancer therapy will be discussed based on the above advances.
The Mre11⅐Rad50⅐Nbs1 (MRN) complex binds DNA double strand breaks to repair DNA and activate checkpoints. We report MRN deficiency in three of seven colon carcinoma cell lines of the NCI Anticancer Drug Screen. To study the involvement of MRN in replication-mediated DNA double strand breaks, we examined checkpoint responses to camptothecin, which induces replication-mediated DNA double strand breaks after replication forks collide with topoisomerase I cleavage complexes. MRN-deficient cells were deficient for Chk2 activation, whereas Chk1 activation was independent of MRN. Chk2 activation was ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-dependent and associated with phosphorylation of Mre11 and Nbs1. Mre11 complementation in MRNdeficient HCT116 cells restored Chk2 activation as well as Rad50 and Nbs1 levels. Conversely, Mre11 down-regulation by small interference RNA (siRNA) in HT29 cells inhibited Chk2 activation and down-regulated Nbs1 and Rad50. Proteasome inhibition also restored Rad50 and Nbs1 levels in HCT116 cells suggesting that Mre11 stabilizes Rad50 and Nbs1. Chk2 activation was also defective in three of four MRN-proficient colorectal cell lines because of low Chk2 levels. Thus, six of seven colon carcinoma cell lines from the NCI Anticancer Drug Screen are functionally Chk2-deficient in response to replication-mediated DNA double strand breaks. We propose that Mre11 stabilizes Nbs1 and Rad50 and that MRN activates Chk2 downstream from ATM in response to replication-mediated DNA double strand breaks. Chk2 deficiency in HCT116 is associated with defective S-phase checkpoint, prolonged G 2 arrest, and hypersensitivity to camptothecin. The high frequency of MRN and Chk2 deficiencies may contribute to genomic instability and therapeutic response to camptothecins in colorectal cancers.
Recognizing acetyllysine of histone is a vital process of epigenetic regulation that is mediated by a protein module called bromodomain. To contribute novel scaffolds for developing into bromodomain inhibitors, we utilize a fragment-based drug discovery approach. By successively applying docking and X-ray crystallography, we were able to identify 9 fragment hits from diffracting more than 60 crystals. In the present work, we described four of them and carried out the integrated lead optimization for fragment 8, which bears a 2-thiazolidinone core. After several rounds of structure guided modifications, we assessed the druggability of 2-thiazolidinone by modulating in vitro pharmacokinetic studies and cellular activity assay. The results showed that two potent compounds of 2-thiazolidinones have good metabolic stability. Also, the cellular assay confirmed the activities of 2-thiazolidinones. Together, we hope the identified 2-thiazolidinone chemotype and other fragment hits described herein can stimulate researchers to develop more diversified bromodomain inhibitors.
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