Infectious diseases are one of the biggest health problems not only in Indonesia, but also in the whole world. Prescribing antibiotics in Indonesia are quite high and increased the incidence of resistance. This study is aimed to evaluate the rationality of antibiotic use in children at the hospital qualitatively. This research is descriptive analysis of retrospective antibiotic prescribing data in children use a Gyssens' criteria and types of antibiotic therapy. Incidence of infection in children under 12 y of age amounted to 93.2%. The analysis results by using the Gyssens' criteria are obtained category O (rational use) of 32%, V (no indication) of 27.4%, inappropriate dose (IIA) of 0.6%, inappropriate interval (IIB) of 1.7%, duration too short (IIIA) of 2.9%, duration too long (IIIB) of 11.4%, alternative more effective (IVA) of 17.7%, alternative less toxic (IVB) of 2.9%, alternative less cost (IVC) of 2.9% and alternative narrower spectrum (IVD) of 0.6%. The results showed that the grouping of most types of therapy was antimicrobial drugs empiric therapy in 47.4% cases followed successively by antimicrobial drugs unknown therapy 32.6%, antimicrobial drugs documented therapy amounted to 12%, antimicrobial drugs extended empiric therapy amounted to 6.9% and antimicrobial drugs prophylaxis therapy amounted to 1.1%. The use of antibiotics in paediatric patients at the hospital in Bengkulu, Indonesia substantially has been inappropriate based on qualitative analysis. Key words: Antibiotics, paediatric, Gyssens' criteriaInfectious diseases in Indonesia are still among the top ten most prevalent diseases. Most infections, especially in children under 5 y old (toddlers) are acute respiratory tract infections amounted to 18%  . The prevalence of respiratory infections and pneumonia are highest in the age group 1-4 years in the population of Indonesia. An antibiotic prescribing in Indonesia is quite high, which might contribute to increase in the incidence of resistance. The impact of antibiotic resistance is increasing the morbidity, mortality and health care costs. In the last decade, many microorganisms showed an increase in the incidence of resistance to standard therapy. It is an estimated worldwide phenomenon caused by misuse and overuse of antibiotics.A study in two major cities in Indonesia (Semarang and Surabaya) found 76% of prescribing antibiotics were intended for groups of paediatric patients. Another report from the city of Denpasar, Indonesia showed that antibiotic prescriptions for children was at a high level of 265 prescriptions (90.4%) out of a total of 293  . In the United States, each year a large number of antibiotic prescriptions are for children and out of those in 50% of the cases, prescribing an antibiotic was not indicated  . In Canada, 74% of preschool children were prescribed antibiotics for the treatment of respiratory infections and 85% of these cases got a prescription for an antibiotic, when not needed  . Most at risk were young children, teenagers, and those with medical ...
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the utilization of antibiotics for children in the General Hospital of Dr. M. Yunus Bengkulu, Indonesia by using the ATC/DDD index, which is accepted as a standard method.Methods: This study was descriptive analytic research with qualitative methods. Observations conducted over six months collecting retrospective prescribing data antibiotics in children admitted in January to June 2014. Data obtained assessed antibiotics prescribed in a quantity which is calculated using ATC/DDD index. In this study, DDDs of anti-infective agents are listed for systemic use, according to ATC/DDD 2016 Index. Data pediatric patients hospitalized amounted to 447 patients while fulfilling the inclusion criteria amounted to 103 medical records and the use of antibiotics which recorded 175 prescriptions.Results: The kind of antibiotics that are widely used are gentamicin (34.9%) and ampicillin (34.3%). The highest ACI based group is penicillin group antibiotics (ampicillin) is 26 DDD/100 bed-days. Highest DDDs in this study is ampicillin (101.7). Utilization of antibiotics in hospitals in Bengkulu, Indonesia to pediatric patient higher than suggested by the WHO is based on a quantitative analysis using the ACT/DDD index.Conclusion: Analysis of antibiotic use in children is not rationally quantitatively seen from the total value of ACI in one of the government hospital is very high compared to WHO standard and based on the most antibiotic type was ampicillin followed by gentamicin.
Background: One of skin diseases that is frequently taking attention among teenagers and young adults is acne or in medical term called acne vulgaris. Acne treatment can be treated by repairing follicular abnormalities, decreasing sebum production, decreasing the number of Propionibacterium acnes colonies and reducing inflammation of the skin. The bacterial population of Propionibacterium acnes can be reduced by giving an antibacterial substance such as erythromycin, clindamycin and benzoyl peroxide. In the treatment of acne we can get antibacterial originating from nature, one of which can be obtained in the secondary metabolism of plants. The extracts and essential oils of betel leaf contain antibacterial and antifungal activities. The effectiveness of the use of betel leaf ethanol extract (Piper betle Linn) in acne treatment can be improved by creating formulations in form of cream preparations. Formulations in cream preparations will affect the amount and speed of active substances that can be absorbed. Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of the ethanol extract cream of betel leaf (piper betle linn) cream in formulas with what percentage of active substance has the most-inhibitory effect on the growth of Propionibacterium acnes. Methods:The study used experimental research. Propionibacterium acnes samples were diluted in 0.9% physiological NaCl sterile and embedded in Nutrient Agar (NA) media. The media was inserted into an incubator at 37 Â° C for 24 hours. The test of antibacterial activity used the disk diffusion method. The antibacterial activity test results were statistically analyzed using the Statistical Product Services Solution (SPSS 17) program with a confidence level of 95% (Î± = 0.05). Results: The three creams containing betel leaf ethanol extracts at percentages of 5%, 10% and 15% for each had inhibitory zones: 9.8 mm, 15.85 mm, 17.35 mm. Conclusion: Cream that contains 15% active substance has the strongest inhibition.
Madu dapat membantu menekan pertumbuhan bakteri tertentu melalui beberapa mekanisme salah satunya yaitu dari komposisi kandungan senyawa kimia yang berbeda-beda berdasarkan sumber pakan nektarnya. Perbedaan tersebut diduga mempengaruhi perbedaan aktivitas madu sebagai antibakteri. Jerawat adalah peradangan yang terjadi pada kulit akibat adanya infeksi bakteri pada kelenjar minyak yang tersumbat. Bakteri yang umum menginfeksi jerawat adalah Staphylococcus aureus dan Propinibacterium acne. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mengetahui kandungan fitokimia dan uji aktivitas antibakteri madu hutan asli Bengkulu terhadap bakteri P.acne dan S. Aureus. Desain penelitian yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah eksperimental laboratorium. Pertama ditetapkan dulu kandungan fitokimia sampel madu, kemudian dilanjutkan dengan penetapan aktvitas antibakteri madu hutan terhadap bakteri P. acne dan S. aureus, potensi ini dilihat dari besarnya nilai Konsentrasi Hambat Minimum (KHM). Sampel madu hutan memiliki kandungan metabolit sekunder. Madu A mengandung Alkaloid dan Terpenoid, Madu B mengandung terpenoid, Madu C mengandung Alkaloid, Madu D mengandung Flavonoid dan alkaloid, sementara Madu E dan F mengandung flavonoid. Dari hasil pengujian aktivitas antibakteri sampel madu hutan memiliki aktivitas antibakteri terhadap bakteri S. aureus dan P.acne, namun efek aktibakteri paling baik terhadap bakteri S.aureus, dimana pada konsentrasi terkecil, madu masih memberikan daya hambat pada bakteri S.aureus. Madu hutan mengandung metabolit sekunder dan lebih berpotensi sebagai agen antibakteri terhadap bakteri S. aureus dibandingkan dengan pada bakteri P. acne
Objective: This research aims to analyze the ability of robusta coffee leaves fraction extract to inhibit the growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and also determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Methods: Antibacterial activity evaluated by the disc diffusion method observed in four types of fraction of extract robusta coffee leaves (n-hexane, ethyl acetate, ethanol, and water). Each extract divided into three various concentrations, 5%, 10%, and 15%. Determination of antimicrobial activity in vitro by the disk diffusion method. Results: Ethyl acetate fraction of coffee leaves extract produced the largest diameter zone of inhibition of bacterial growth compared to other extraction fractions of 17.28 mm in E. coli and 18.58 mm in S. aureus. The MIC of coffee leaves extract fraction water, ethyl acetate, and n-hexane on E. coli and S. aureus is 5%, while the fraction ethanol MIC is 10%. Conclusion: The antibacterial effect of ethyl acetate fraction of coffee leaves extract showed an antibacterial effect that was better than the fraction of n-hexane, ethanol, and water.
At this time the practice of self-medication or self-medication is increasingly being carried out by the community. This is done for various reasons, including feeling that the disease they are suffering from is only a minor illness that does not need to be treated by a doctor. This study aims to get a picture of people's behavior when searching for drugs at pharmacies in their self-medication practice in the Bengkulu City area. The research was conducted using a direct survey research method using observation sheets. Determination of the sample of pharmacies and respondents was done by using purposive sampling technique. People already have a choice of what medicine they will buy at the pharmacy to relieve the pain they feel (84.7%) and ask pharmacists for advice in making choices (15.3%). Most of the drugs used in the practice of self-medication by the community are brand-name drugs (81%) and a small percentage of people use generic drugs (19%). The choices in the use of drugs are over-the-counter drugs (21.4%), limited over-the-counter drugs (28.8%) and hard drugs (49.8%). Based on this, the behavior of people who go to pharmacies to practice self-medication, most of them already have a choice of what medicine they will buy to relieve the pain they feel. The thing that must be a concern is that many people choose to use hard drugs in their self-medication practice without asking for advice from pharmacists at the pharmacy (49.8%), while hard drugs in their use must use a doctor's prescription.
Trembesi plant (Samanea saman) is a plant that has the potential as traditional medicine. People in using medicinal plants often do not know the chemical content of these plants, so that in determining the amount of dosage, people only rely on experience and estimates. Research on the characterization of trembesi leaf simplicia has never been done. Research on the characterization of trembesi leaf simplicia has never been done. The purpose of this study was to determine the characteristics of trembesi leaf simplicia including specific and non-specific characteristics. The research is carried out in the form of experiments in the laboratory. The sample used is trembesi leaves. The research stages started from discovery, making simplicia, extraction, specific and non-specific characteristics. In the phytochemical test, ethanol extract of trembesi leaves was used. Data analysis used is descriptive method. Specific results showed trembesi leaf simplicia has a coarse powder form, distinctive odor, tasteless, green in color, and on microscopic results of trembesi leaf simplicia powder there is starch, fragments in the form of epidermis, water soluble extract content 11.93%, ethanol soluble essence 18, 93% and contains flavonoids, tannins, steroids and saponins. The results of non-specific characteristics are 8.07% water content, 7.91% ash content and 0.29% acid insoluble ash content.
The high incidence of antibiotic resistance in the treatment of infections today is very worrying. The main therapy in patients with acute respiratory infections (ARI) is using antibiotics. This study aims to determine the sensitivity of several antibiotics to the bacteria that cause ARI. The design of this study is quasi-experimental. This sensitivity testing uses the disc diffusion method (Kirby Bauer). The antibiotics used are Ampicillin and Cefotaxime. The results obtained are that the antibiotic Ampicillin resistant by 86.26% and 13.63% are still sensitive to the bacteria that causes ARI. The same thing also happened to Cefotaxime antibiotics, most of which were resistant (59.09%), intermediate (9.09%), and most were still sensitive (31.81%) to bacteria that infect the respiratory tract. From the results obtained it can be concluded that the incidence of bacterial resistance to ampicillin and cefotaxime is very high against bacteria that cause ARI.
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