Background: Modern society is full of stress. Immobilization stress is a model used in animals to study its effects. Vitamin E is an antioxidant that protects biological membranes from oxidative stress. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the effects of immobilization stress on the adrenal cortex of rats and the ameliorative effect of vitamin E. Materials and Methods: Forty adult male rats were used in this study and were divided equally into 4 groups. Group I: were divided equally into negative and positive controls. Group II: rats received vitamin E at a dose of 40 I.U/kg by gastric tube for 30 days. Group III: rats subjected to immobilization stress 2 hours /day for 30 days. Group IV: rats subjected to immobilization stress 2 hours /day and received 40 I.U/kg of vitamin E for 30 days. Adrenal sections were histologically prepared and examined. Results: Group II was comparable to group IA. Group III revealed zona glomerulosa (ZG) with loss of normal architecture, zona fasciculata (ZF) with multiple cells containing cytoplasmic vacuolations and darkly stained nuclei. By EM ZG cells appeared with accumulations of lipid droplets and lysosomes, irregular nuclear envelopes and chromatin condensation. ZF cells showed numerous lipid droplets and irregular nuclear envelopes. There were significant increases in the mean area of collagen fibers and mean serum cortisol level. Group IV revealed regression of these changes and increase in the mean count of CD44 +ve cells. Conclusions: Immobilization stress exerted deleterious suprarenal cortical changes and vitamin E had an ameliorative effect.
Introduction: Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TNPs) have a wide range of applications in industry, medicine and environmental technology. Nowadays, TNPs have raised researcher's concerns on their toxicity. Lycopene is a dietary carotenoid having a potent antioxidant effect. Aim: To evaluate the effect of TNPs on the structure of renal cortex of rats and to assess the possible protective effect of lycopene against TNPs nephrotoxicity. Material and methods: Forty five adult male rats were divided into four groups. Group I (the control group) included 20 rats, which were divided equally into 4 subgroups. Subgroup IA was the negative control, Subgroup IB given one ml corn oil by gastric tube, Subgroup IC given one ml distilled water intraperitoneally (i.p) and Subgroup ID given one ml corn oil by gastric tube and one ml distilled water (i.p). Group II included 5 rats received a daily dose of 10 mg/kg body weight (BW) of lycopene by gastric tube for 4 weeks. Group III included 10 rats injected with 150 mg/kg BW (i.p.) of TNPs daily for 4 weeks. Group IV included 10 rats received both TNPs and lycopene at the same aforementioned doses for 4 weeks. Kidney specimens were prepared and sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome. Immunohistochemical detection of desmin, anti-proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and caspase-3 was done. Results: Our results revealed that group II had similar findings nearly as group I. Group III showed congested dilated glomerular capillaries. The convoluted tubules showed exfoliation of some lining epithelial cells and degenerative changes. There were interstitial haemorrhage, mononuclear cell infiltration and increase in collagen fibers around degenerated convoluted tubules and glomeruli. A significant increase in desmin-expression in the glomerular cells was observed. Besides, there were significant increases of PCNA positive nuclear and caspase-3 cytoplasmic reactions in renal tubular cells. Group IV revealed amelioration of these changes. Conclusion: Lycopene protected rat's renal cortex against TNPs nephrotoxicity.
Background: Ethanol is the most commonly used and abused xenobiotic in the world. Royal jelly (RJ) has been considered as an antioxidant that protects against different agents. Aim of the work: This study aimed to investigate the effect of ethanol on the rat tongue and the possible protective role of royal jelly. Material and methods: Twenty five adult male rats were used in this study and were divided into 4 groups. Group I: 10 rats were divided equally into negative and positive controls. Group II: 5 rats received RJ at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight by gastric tube daily for 30 days. Group III: 5 rats received ethanol at a dose of 10 ml/kg body weight from 30% v/v ethanol solution in distilled water by a gastric tube daily for 30 days. Group IV: 5 rats received both RJ and ethanol as the same previous doses by gastric tube for 30 days. Tongue sections were histologically prepared and examined. Results:The results revealed that group II was nearly as group I. Group III revealed by LM dorsal surface of the tongue was covered by irregularly arranged, short and long lingual papillae. Some papillae were thin, with blunted tips and others were completely absent. The epithelial lining of the ventral surface also showed an apparent reduction in thickness. The keratin layer of the ventral surfaces of the tongue appeared in some regions discontinuous and detached. Some skeletal muscle fibers revealed separations and vacuolations. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) examination revealed a noticeable atrophy of lingual papillae from being short to being absent in focal areas. They were irregularly arranged in different directions. Group IV revealed amelioration of these changes. Conclusion: Ethanol has damaging effects on the lingual papillae and muscles and royal jelly has a protective role for these effects.
Background: Food additives are substances added to food to improve its safety, freshness, taste, texture, or appearance. They include aroma enhancer eg : monosodium glutamate(MSG) or sweetener eg.: aspartame (ASP). Aim of the Study: This current study was performed to study the microscopic alterations induced by MSG, ASP individually and in combination and the possible protective effect of astaxanthin (AST) on those induced changes. Materials and Methods: Forty nine adult male albino rats were used in this study divided into; control group (fourteen rats) two rats for each experimental group and experimental group (thirty five rats) subdivided into seven subgroups:ASP group, MSG group, ASP andMSG group,AST group,ASP andAST group, MSG andAST group, ASPandMSG andAST group. Oral administration was done in the morning daily for 6 weeks for all groups. When the duration of the study ended, blood samples were collected from rat tail and paraffin sections were prepared from the cerebral hemisphere of each animal. They were subjected to hematoxylin and eosin stain and immunohistochemical stain for Caspase3 and Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP). Statistical analysis were done for assessment of body weight, reduced glutathione (GSH) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) level. Results: The groups that received ASP (I), MSG (II) individually or in combination (III) exhibited shrunken cells with darkly stained nuclei and surrounded with pericellular haloes and some areas even revealed loss of the cells with increase in immunoreactivity for GFAP and Caspase 3. These groups also showed elevation in the level of TNFα and decrease in the level of GSH. On treatment with AST groups V, VI and VII showed reduced pycknosis, decreased immunoreactivity for GFAP and Caspase 3. It also showed reduction in the level of TNFα and increased level of GSH. Conclusion: ASP and MSG individually or in combination induce alternation in hippocampus and AST administration ameliorate those changes
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