SummaryAugmented activities of both arginase and S6K1 are involved in endothelial dysfunction in aging. This study was to investigate whether or not there is a crosstalk between arginase and S6K1 in endothelial inflammation and aging in senescent human umbilical vein endothelial cells and in aging mouse models. We show increased arginase-II (Arg-II) expression ⁄ activity in senescent endothelial cells. Silencing Arg-II in senescent cells suppresses eNOSuncoupling, several senescence markers such as senescence-associated-b-galactosidase activity, p53-S15, p21, and expression of vascular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM1). Conversely, overexpressing Arg-II in nonsenescent cells promotes eNOS-uncoupling, endothelial senescence, and enhances VCAM1 ⁄ ICAM1 levels and monocyte adhesion, which are inhibited by co-expressing superoxide dismutase-1. Moreover, overexpressing S6K1 in nonsenescent cells increases, whereas silencing S6K1 in senescent cells decreases Arg-II gene expression ⁄ activity through regulation of Arg-II mRNA stability. Furthermore, S6K1 overexpression exerts the same effects as Arg-II on endothelial senescence and inflammation responses, which are prevented by silencing Arg-II, demonstrating a role of Arg-II as the mediator of S6K1-induced endothelial aging. Interestingly, mice that are deficient in Arg-II gene (Arg-II ) ⁄ ) ) are not only protected from age-associated increase in Arg-II, VCAM1 ⁄ ICAM1, aging markers, and eNOS-uncoupling in the aortas but also reveal a decrease in S6K1 activity. Similarly, silencing Arg-II in senescent cells decreases S6K1 activity, demonstrating that Arg-II also stimulates S6K1 in aging. Our study reveals a novel mechanism of mutual positive regulation between S6K1 and Arg-II in endothelial inflammation and aging. Targeting S6K1 and ⁄ or Arg-II may decelerate vascular aging and age-associated cardiovascular disease development.
A bacterium producing an extracellular bioflocculant was isolated from contaminated LB medium and identified as Bacillus licheniformis by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and its biochemical/physiological characteristics. The optimum culture conditions for flocculant production were an initial medium pH of 7.2 and an inoculum size of 4% (vol/vol). The maximum flocculating activity (700 U/ml) was obtained after cultivation at 37°C for 48 h. Chemical analyses of the purified bioflocculant revealed that it was a proteoglycan composed of 89% carbohydrate and 11% protein (wt/wt). The mass ratio of neutral sugar, amino sugar, and uronic acid was measured at 7.9:4:1. Infrared spectrometry further indicated the presence of carboxyl, hydroxyl, and amino groups, typical of heteropolysaccharide. The average mass of the bioflocculant was calculated to be 1.76 ؋ 10 6 Da. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the bioflocculant showed an irregular structure with netted texture. Its efficient flocculation capabilities suggest potential applications in industry.
Ferroptosis, a recently identified and iron-dependent cell death, differs from other cell death such as apoptosis, necroptosis, pyroptosis, and autophagy-dependent cell death. This form of cell death does not exhibit typical morphological and biochemical characteristics, including cell shrinkage, mitochondrial fragmentation, nuclear condensation. The dysfunction of lipid peroxide clearance, the presence of redox-active iron as well as oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-containing phospholipids are three essential features of ferroptosis. Iron metabolism and lipid peroxidation signaling are increasingly recognized as central mediators of ferroptosis. Ferroptosis plays an important role in the regulation of oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Accumulating evidence suggests that ferroptosis is implicated in a variety of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, stroke, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and heart failure, indicating that targeting ferroptosis will present a novel therapeutic approach against cardiovascular diseases. Here, we provide an overview of the features, process, function, and mechanisms of ferroptosis, and its increasingly connected relevance to oxidative stress, inflammation, and cardiovascular diseases.
Impaired autophagy function and enhanced ARG2 (arginase 2)-MTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) crosstalk are implicated in vascular aging and atherosclerosis. We are interested in the role of ARG2 and the potential underlying mechanism(s) in modulation of endothelial autophagy. Using human nonsenescent “young” and replicative senescent endothelial cells as well as Apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoe−/−Arg2+/+) and Arg2-deficient apoe−/− (apoe−/−arg2−/−) mice fed a high-fat diet for 10 wk as the atherosclerotic animal model, we show here that overexpression of ARG2 in the young cells suppresses endothelial autophagy with concomitant enhanced expression of RICTOR, the essential component of the MTORC2 complex, leading to activation of the AKT-MTORC1-RPS6KB1/S6K1 (ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 70kDa, polypeptide 1) cascade and inhibition of PRKAA/AMPK (protein kinase, AMP-activated, α catalytic subunit). Expression of an inactive ARG2 mutant (H160F) had the same effect. Moreover, silencing RPS6KB1 or expression of a constitutively active PRKAA prevented autophagy suppression by ARG2 or H160F. In senescent cells, enhanced ARG2-RICTOR-AKT-MTORC1-RPS6KB1 and decreased PRKAA signaling and autophagy were observed, which was reversed by silencing ARG2 but not by arginase inhibitors. In line with the above observations, genetic ablation of Arg2 in apoe−/− mice reduced RPS6KB1, enhanced PRKAA signaling and endothelial autophagy in aortas, which was associated with reduced atherosclerosis lesion formation. Taken together, the results demonstrate that ARG2 impairs endothelial autophagy independently of the L-arginine ureahydrolase activity through activation of RPS6KB1 and inhibition of PRKAA, which is implicated in atherogenesis.
BackgroundVascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) senescence and apoptosis are involved in atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability. Arginase‐II (Arg‐II) has been shown to promote vascular dysfunction and plaque vulnerability phenotypes in mice through uncoupling of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and activation of macrophage inflammation. The function of Arg‐II in VSMCs with respect to plaque vulnerability is unknown. This study investigated the functions of Arg‐II in VSMCs linking to plaque vulnerability.Methods and ResultsIn vitro studies were performed on VSMCs isolated from human umbilical veins, whereas in vivo studies were performed on atherosclerosis‐prone apolipoprotein E‐deficient (ApoE−/−) mice. In nonsenescent VSMCs, overexpressing wild‐type Arg‐II or an l‐arginine ureahydrolase inactive Arg‐II mutant (H160F) caused similar effects on mitochondrial dysfunction, cell apoptosis, and senescence, which were abrogated by silencing p66Shc or p53. The activation of p66Shc but not p53 by Arg‐II was dependent on extracellular signal‐regulated kinases (ERKs) and sequential activation of 40S ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1)—c‐Jun N‐terminal kinases (JNKs). In senescent VSMCs, Arg‐II and S6K1, ERK‐p66Shc, and p53 signaling levels were increased. Silencing Arg‐II reduced all these signalings and cell senescence/apoptosis. Conversely, silencing p66Shc reduced ERK and S6K1 signaling and Arg‐II levels and cell senescence/apoptosis. Furthermore, genetic ablation of Arg‐II in ApoE−/− mice reduced the aforementioned signaling and apoptotic VSMCs in the plaque of aortic roots.ConclusionsArg‐II, independently of its l‐arginine ureahydrolase activity, promotes mitochondrial dysfunction leading to VSMC senescence/apoptosis through complex positive crosstalk among S6K1‐JNK, ERK, p66Shc, and p53, contributing to atherosclerotic vulnerability phenotypes in mice.
ObjectiveTo assess the immunogenicity and safety of influenza vaccine in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).MethodsRelevant articles were retrieved from electronic databases. Seroprotection rate, seroconversion rate and factors that increase antibody geometric mean titer (GMT) were used as indices to measure the immunogenicity. The safety of vaccine was assessed through monitoring adverse events, which included side effects and SLE exacerbations. We performed a meta-analysis of influenza vaccine seroprotection, seroconversion and adverse effects. SLE exacerbation after vaccination was comprehensively described. We used the Committee for Proprietary Medicinal Products (CPMP) guidelines to determine whether influenza can induce adequate immunogenicity in patients with SLE.ResultsEighteen studies with 1966 subjects met the inclusion criteria. At least 565 of the subjects were patients with low-to-moderate SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) score or stable SLE disease. Compared with the general population, seroprotection rate in SLE patients was significantly decreased in patients with H1N1 [odds ratio (OR) = 0.36, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.27–0.50] and H3N2 vaccination (OR = 0.48, 95% CI: 0.24–0.93), but not influenza B vaccination (OR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.24–1.25). Seroconversion rate also significantly decreased in patients with H1N1 (OR = 0.39, 95% CI: 0.27–0.57) and influenza B (OR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.29–0.76) vaccination, but not H3N2 vaccination (OR = 0.62, 95% CI: 0.21–1.79). However, the immunogenicity of influenza vaccine in SLE patients almost reached that of the CPMP guidelines. The OR for side effects (patients versus healthy controls) was 3.24 (95% CI: 0.62–16.76). Among 1966 patients with SLE, 32 experienced mild exacerbation of SLE and five had serious side effects for other reasons.ConclusionInfluenza vaccine has moderate effect on protecting patients with SLE. The side effects of influenza vaccine are not serious and are manageable. With consideration of a higher risk of SLE exacerbation and a more severe course of infection among SLE patients, influenza vaccination should be promoted among SLE patients with a low-to-moderate SLEDAI score or stable disease.
L-arginine supplementation is proposed to improve health status or as adjunct therapy for diseases including cardiovascular diseases. However, controversial results and even detrimental effects of L-arginine supplementation are reported. We investigate potential mechanisms of L-arginine-induced detrimental effects on vascular endothelial cells. Human endothelial cells were exposed to a physiological (0.1 mmol/L) or pharmacological (0.5 mmol/L) concentration of L-arginine for 30 minutes (acute) or 7 days (chronic). The effects of L-arginine supplementation on endothelial senescence phenotype, i.e., levels of senescence-associated beta-galactosidase, expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1, eNOS-uncoupling, arginase-II expression/activity, and mTORC1-S6K1 activity were analyzed. While acute L-arginine treatment enhances endothelial NO production accompanied with superoxide production and activation of S6K1 but no up-regulation of arginase-II, chronic L-arginine supplementation causes endothelial senescence, up-regulation of the adhesion molecule expression, and eNOS-uncoupling (decreased NO and enhanced superoxide production), which are associated with S6K1 activation and up-regulation of arginase-II. Silencing either S6K1 or arginase-II inhibits up-regulation/activation of each other, prevents endothelial dysfunction, adhesion molecule expression, and senescence under the chronic L-arginine supplementation condition. These results demonstrate that S6K1 and arginase-II form a positive circuit mediating the detrimental effects of chronic L-arginine supplementation on endothelial cells.
Galangin suppresses proliferation and induces apoptosis and autophagy in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, but the precise mechanism is not clear. In this study, we demonstrated that galangin induced autophagy, enhanced the binding of SIRT1-LC3 and reduced the acetylation of endogenous LC3 in HepG2 cells. But this autophagy was inhibited by inactivation of SIRT1 meanwhile, galangin failed to reduce the acetylation of endogenous LC3 after SIRT1 was knocked-down. Collectively, these findings demonstrate a new mechanism by which galangin induces autophagy via the deacetylation of endogenous LC3 by SIRT1.
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