It is well-known that the high-performance polymeric dielectric films used for high-voltage DC capacitors should have outstanding capabilities in terms of electrical and mechanical properties in order to face harsh operating conditions. Many factors limit the ability of these thin films to face different and growing stresses according to modern electrical requirements. Microstructure properties, additives, impurities, defects formed during manufacturing as well as applied stress types significantly affect the performance of dielectric films and their operational lifetime. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the factors which affect the ageing, degradation and breakdown of metallised polypropylene (PP) capacitors films. The effects of microstructure, surface morphological properties, mechanical properties and defects on the reliability of biaxially oriented polypropylene films (BOPP) are studied. In addition, the phenomena affecting dielectric performance and ageing mechanisms which are induced by electrical, thermal and electrothermal stresses are discussed.
Objective: This retrospective study aimed to analyze the ultrasound (US) imaging features of solitary papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) located in the isthmus and to assess the risk factors for lymph node metastasis (LNM) and tumor capsular invasion. Methods: We included a total of 135 patients with solitary PTC located in the isthmus. All the cases underwent US, total thyroidectomy, and prophylactic central lymph node dissection. Patients' demographic and thyroid isthmus nodules' US characteristics, as well as risk factors associated with LNM and tumor capsular invasion, were analyzed. Results: It was revealed that the occurrence of LNM was higher in male patients than in female patients (P < 0.001). As risk factors, the size of PTC in the isthmus was found to be associated with LNM and tumor capsular invasion (P = 0.005 and 0.000, respectively). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of the size of the isthmus PTC was 0.64 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.55-0.72], indicating a probability for LNM. The AUC value for tumor capsular invasion was 0.77 (95% CI: 0.68-0.83). When the threshold was set to 1.1 cm, the larger size indicated that there was a probability of occurrence of LNM with sensitivity and specificity of 47.4 and 73.7%, respectively. When the threshold was set to 0.7 cm, the larger size indicated that there was potentially a tumor capsular invasion, with sensitivity and specificity of 80.6 and 56.3%, respectively. Wider-than-tall nodules were found to be significantly different from those in LNM and tumor capsular invasion (P = 0.038 and 0.030, respectively). There were significant differences in tumor capsular invasion in extrathyroidal extension (ETE) compared with smooth or ill-defined and lobulated or irregular nodules (P = 0.017). Conclusions: This study showed that the incidence of LNM in male patients was higher than that in female ones. When a US image shows a thyroid isthmus nodule with a wider-than-tall shape, LNM and tumor capsular invasion were likely to occur. When a US image shows a thyroid isthmus nodule with an ETE, tumor capsular invasion was likely to occur. ETE and wider-than-tall may be indicators of FNA under US guidance, even though the size of thyroid isthmus nodule may be <1 cm.
The surface charge and space charge accumulation in paper used in oil-paper insulation system may distort electric field distribution and lead to the flashover and breakdown of insulation system. In this paper, the effect of gas-phase fluorination on the surface charge and space charge characteristics of oil-impregnated Nomex paper was investigated. Nomex T410 was fluorinated at 25 • C using F 2 /N 2 mixtures with 20% F 2 in volume at 0.05 MPa for 15, 30 and 45 min. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) proved that the molecular chain scission and cleavage occurred during gas-phase fluorination. Furthermore, the surface charge and space charge characteristic of the original and fluorinated oil-impregnated paper were measured using an electrostatic voltmeter and Pulsed Electroacoustic (PEA) equipment respectively. Furthermore, the hole and electron trap distribution of the samples were obtained by Isothermal Surface Potential Decay (ISPD) model. The results showed that both the positive and negative charge decay rates were accelerated by gas-phase fluorination and the hole, electron trap energy and density of the fluorinated samples were reduced by fluorination. It is suggested that the space charge dissipation was also accelerated by fluorination, indicating that gas-phase fluorination is an effective approach to modify the charge dynamics of oil-impregnated Nomex paper.
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