Colistin represents one of the few available drugs for treating infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. As such, the recent plasmid-mediated spread of the colistin resistance gene mcr-1 poses a significant public health threat, requiring global monitoring and surveillance. Here, we characterize the global distribution of mcr-1 using a data set of 457 mcr-1-positive sequenced isolates. We find mcr-1 in various plasmid types but identify an immediate background common to all mcr-1 sequences. Our analyses establish that all mcr-1 elements in circulation descend from the same initial mobilization of mcr-1 by an ISApl1 transposon in the mid 2000s (2002–2008; 95% highest posterior density), followed by a marked demographic expansion, which led to its current global distribution. Our results provide the first systematic phylogenetic analysis of the origin and spread of mcr-1, and emphasize the importance of understanding the movement of antibiotic resistance genes across multiple levels of genomic organization.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) is the pathogen of SARS, which caused a global panic in 2003. We describe here the screening of Chinese herbal medicine-based, novel small molecules that bind avidly with the surface spike protein of SARS-CoV and thus can interfere with the entry of the virus to its host cells. We achieved this by using a two-step screening method consisting of frontal affinity chromatography-mass spectrometry coupled with a viral infection assay based on a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-luc/SARS pseudotyped virus. Two small molecules, tetra-O-galloyl-␤-D-glucose (TGG) and luteolin, were identified, whose anti-SARS-CoV activities were confirmed by using a wild-type SARS-CoV infection system. TGG exhibits prominent anti-SARS-CoV activity with a 50% effective concentration of 4.5 M and a selective index of 240.0. The two-step screening method described here yielded several small molecules that can be used for developing new classes of anti-SARS-CoV drugs and is potentially useful for the high-throughput screening of drugs inhibiting the entry of HIV, hepatitis C virus, and other insidious viruses into their host cells.
The advent of conductive self-healing (CSH) hydrogels, a class of novel materials mimicking human skin, may change the trajectory of the industrial process because of their potential applications in soft robots, biomimetic prostheses, and health-monitoring systems. Here, the development of a mechanically and electrically self-healing hydrogel based on physically and chemically cross-linked networks is reported. The autonomous intrinsic self-healing of the hydrogel is attained through dynamic ionic interactions between carboxylic groups of poly(acrylic acid) and ferric ions. A covalent cross-linking is used to support the mechanical structure of the hydrogel. Establishing a fair balance between the chemical and physical cross-linking networks together with the conductive nanostructure of polypyrrole networks leads to a double network hydrogel with bulk conductivity, mechanical and electrical self-healing properties (100% mechanical recovery in 2 min), ultrastretchability (1500%), and pressure sensitivity. The practical potential of CSH hydrogels is further revealed by their application in human motion detection and their 3D-printing performance.
The Chinese Glioma Cooperative Group (CGCG) Guideline Panel for adult diffuse gliomas provided recommendations for diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. The Panel covered all fields of expertise in neuro-oncology, i.e. neurosurgeons, neurologists, neuropathologists, neuroradiologists, radiation and medical oncologists and clinical trial experts. The task made clearer and more transparent choices about outcomes considered most relevant through searching the references considered most relevant and evaluating their value. The scientific evidence of papers collected from the literature was evaluated and graded based on the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine Levels of Evidence and recommendations were given accordingly. The recommendations will provide a framework and assurance for the strategy of diagnostic and therapeutic measures to reduce complications from unnecessary treatment and cost. The guideline should serve as an application for all professionals involved in the management of patients with adult diffuse glioma and also as a source of knowledge for insurance companies and other institutions involved in the cost regulation of cancer care in China.
Potassium-ion batteries (PIBs) are a promising alternative to lithium-ion batteries because potassium is an abundant natural resource. To date, PIBs are in the early stages of exploration and only a few anode materials have been investigated. This study reports a cobalt sulfide and graphene (CoS@G) composite as anode electrode for PIBs for the first time. The composite features interconnect quantum dots of CoS nanoclusters uniformly anchored on graphene nanosheets. The coexistence of CoS quantum dot nanoclusters and graphene nanosheets endows the composite with large surface area, highly conductive network, robust structural stability, and excellent electrochemical energy storage performance. An unprecedented capacity of 310.8 mA h g −1 at 500 mA g −1 is obtained after 100 cycles, with a rate capability better than an equivalent sodium-ion batteries (SIBs). This work provides the evidence that PIBs can be a promising alternative to SIBs, especially at high charge-discharge rates. The development of the CoS@G anode material also provides the basis of expanding the library of suitable anode materials for PIBs.
Graphical AbstractHighlights d Characterization of the mutational landscape of secondary glioblastoma d Clonal and subclonal METex14 promote glioma progression and mark worse prognosis d PLB-1001 is a highly selective, efficient, and BBB-permeable MET kinase inhibitor d PLB-1001 provides a safe and efficacious therapeutic approach for glioma treatment SUMMARY Low-grade gliomas almost invariably progress into secondary glioblastoma (sGBM) with limited therapeutic option and poorly understood mechanism. By studying the mutational landscape of 188 sGBMs, we find significant enrichment of TP53 mutations, somatic hypermutation, MET-exon-14-skipping (METex14), PTPRZ1-MET (ZM) fusions, and MET amplification. Strikingly, METex14 frequently co-occurs with ZM fusion and is present in $14% of cases with significantly worse prognosis. Subsequent studies show that METex14 promotes glioma progression by prolonging MET activity. Furthermore, we describe a MET kinase inhibitor, PLB-1001, that demonstrates remarkable potency in selectively inhibiting MET-altered tumor cells in preclinical models. Importantly, this compound also shows blood-brain barrier permeability and is subsequently applied in a phase I clinical trial that enrolls MET-altered chemo-resistant glioma patients. Encouragingly, PLB-1001 achieves partial response in at least two advanced sGBM patients with rarely significant side effects, underscoring the clinical potential for precisely treating gliomas using this therapy.
Histone modification determines epigenetic patterns of gene expression with methylation of histone H3 at lysine 4 (H3K4) often associated with active promoters. LSD1/KDM1 is a histone demethylase that suppresses gene expression by converting di-methylated H3K4 to mono- and un-methylated H3K4. LSD1 is essential for metazoan development but its pathophysiological functions in cancer remain mainly uncharacterized. In this study, we developed specific bioactive small inhibitors of LSD1 that enhance H3K4 methylation and derepress epigenetically suppressed genes in vivo. Strikingly, these compounds inhibited the proliferation of pluripotent cancer cells including teratocarcinoma, embryonic carcinoma, and seminoma or embryonic stem cells that express the stem cell markers Oct4 and Sox2, while displaying minimum growth inhibitory effects on non-pluripotent cancer or normal somatic cells. RNAi-mediated knockdown of LSD1 expression phenocopied these effects, confirming the specificity of small molecules and further establishing the high degree of sensitivity and selectivity of pluripotent cancer cells to LSD1 ablation. In support of these results, we found that LSD1 protein level is highly elevated in pluripotent cancer cells and in human testicular seminoma tissues that express Oct4. Using these novel chemical inhibitors as probes, our findings establish LSD1 and histone H3K4 methylation as essential cancer-selective epigenetic targets in pluripotent cancer cells that have stem cell properties.
Recent years have witnessed the rise of graphene and its applications in various electronic devices. Specifically, featuring excellent flexibility, transparency, conductivity, and mechanical robustness, graphene has emerged as a versatile material for flexible electronics. In the past decade, facilitated by various laser processing technologies, including the laser‐treatment‐induced photoreduction of graphene oxides, flexible patterning, hierarchical structuring, heteroatom doping, controllable thinning, etching, and shock of graphene, along with laser‐induced graphene on polyimide, graphene has found broad applications in a wide range of electronic devices, such as power generators, supercapacitors, optoelectronic devices, sensors, and actuators. Here, the recent advancements in the laser fabrication of graphene‐based flexible electronic devices are comprehensively summarized. The various laser fabrication technologies that have been employed for the preparation, processing, and modification of graphene and its derivatives are reviewed. A thorough overview of typical laser‐enabled flexible electronic devices that are based on various graphene sources is presented. With the rapid progress that has been made in the research on graphene preparation methodologies and laser micronanofabrication technologies, graphene‐based electronics may soon undergo fast development.
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