Visfatin stimulates VSMC proliferation via NMN-mediated ERK1/2 and p38 signalling. The present study provides a molecular link of visfatin to the paracrine action of PVAT, demonstrates a novel function of visfatin in promoting VSMC proliferation, and reveals NMN as a novel signalling molecule that triggers the proliferative process.
Recent reports indicate that autophagy serves as a stress response and may participate in the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia. Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt, also known as visfatin), the rate-limiting enzyme in mammalian NAD + biosynthesis, protects against ischemic stroke through inhibiting neuronal apoptosis and necrosis. This study sought to determine the involvement of autophagy in neuroprotection of Nampt in cerebral ischemia. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats and oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) in cultured cortical neurons were performed. Nampt was overexpressed or knocked down using lentivirus-mediated gene transfer in vivo and in vitro. Immunochemistry (LC3-II), electron microscope and immunoblotting assays (LC3-II, Beclin 1, mammalian target of rapamycin [mTOR], S6K1 and tuberous sclerosis complex-2 [TSC2]) were performed to assess autophagy. We found that overexpression of Nampt increased autophagy (LC3 puncta immunochemistry staining, LC3-II/Beclin 1 expression and autophagosomes number) both in vivo and in vitro at 2 h after MCAO. At the early stage of OGD, autophagy-inducer rapamycin protected against neuronal injury induced by Nampt knockdown, whereas autophagy-inhibitor 3-methyladenine partly abolished the neuroprotective effect of Nampt. Overexpression or knockdown of Nampt regulated the phosphorylation of mTOR and S6K1 signaling pathway upon OGD stress through enhancing phosphorylation of TSC2 at Ser1387 but not Thr1462 site. Furthermore, in cultured SIRT1-knockout neurons, the regulation of Nampt on autophagic proteins LC3-II and Beclin 1 was abolished. Our results demonstrate that Nampt promotes neuronal survival through inducing autophagy via regulating the TSC2-mTOR-S6K1 signaling pathway in a SIRT1-dependent manner during cerebral ischemia.
Adipokines play important roles in metabolic homeostasis and disease. We have recently identified a novel adipokine Metrnl, also known as Subfatin, for its high expression in subcutaneous fat. Here, we demonstrate a prodifferentiation action of Metrnl in white adipocytes. Adipocyte-specific knockout of Metrnl exacerbates insulin resistance induced by high-fat diet (HFD), whereas adipocyte-specific transgenic overexpression of Metrnl prevents insulin resistance induced by HFD or leptin deletion. Body weight and adipose content are not changed by adipocyte Metrnl. Consistently, no correlation is found between serum Metrnl level and BMI in humans. Metrnl promotes white adipocyte differentiation, expandability, and lipid metabolism and inhibits adipose inflammation to form functional fat, which contributes to its activity against insulin resistance. The insulin sensitization of Metrnl is blocked by PPARγ inhibitors or knockdown. However, Metrnl does not drive white adipose browning. Acute intravenous injection of recombinant Metrnl has no hypoglycemic effect, and 1-week intravenous administration of Metrnl is unable to rescue insulin resistance exacerbated by adipocyte Metrnl deficiency. Our results suggest adipocyte Metrnl controls insulin sensitivity at least via its local autocrine/paracrine action through the PPARγ pathway. Adipocyte Metrnl is an inherent insulin sensitizer and may become a therapeutic target for insulin resistance.
Hepatic concentrations of NAD + , protein levels of nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) and several other critical enzymes regulating NAD + biosynthesis, were compared in middle-aged and aged mice or patients. The influences of NAD + decline on the steatosis and steatohepatitis were evaluated in wild-type and H247A dominant-negative, enzymically-inactive NAMPT transgenic mice (DN-NAMPT) given normal or high-fat diet (HFD).
KEY RESULTSHepatic NAD + level decreased in aged mice and humans. NAMPT-controlled NAD + salvage, but not de novo biosynthesis pathway, was compromised in liver of elderly mice and humans. Given normal chow, middle-age DN-NAMPT mice displayed systemic NAD + reduction and had moderate NAFLD phenotypes, including lipid accumulation, enhanced oxidative stress, triggered inflammation and impaired insulin sensitivity in liver. All these NAFLD phenotypes, especially release of pro-inflammatory factors, Kupffer cell accumulation, monocytes infiltration, NLRP3 inflammasome pathway and hepatic fibrosis (Masson's staining and α-SMA staining), deteriorated further under HFD challenge. Oral administration of nicotinamide riboside, a natural NAD + precursor, completely corrected these NAFLD phenotypes induced by NAD + deficiency alone or HFD, whereas adenovirus-mediated SIRT1 overexpression only partially rescued these phenotypes.
CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONSThese results provide the first evidence that ageing-associated NAD + deficiency is a critical risk factor for NAFLD, and suggest that supplementation with NAD + substrates may be a promising therapeutic strategy to prevent and treat NAFLD.
Autophagy, a highly conserved process conferring cytoprotection against stress, contributes to the progression of cerebral ischemia. β-arrestins are multifunctional proteins that mediate receptor desensitization and serve as important signaling scaffolds involved in numerous physiopathological processes. Here, we show that both ARRB1 (arrestin, β 1) and ARRB2 (arrestin, β 2) were upregulated by cerebral ischemic stress. Knockout of Arrb1, but not Arrb2, aggravated the mortality, brain infarction, and neurological deficit in a mouse model of cerebral ischemia. Accordingly, Arrb1-deficient neurons exhibited enhanced cell injury upon oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD), an in vitro model of ischemia. Deletion of Arrb1 did not affect the cerebral ischemia-induced inflammation, oxidative stress, and nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase upregulation, but markedly suppressed autophagy and induced neuronal apoptosis/necrosis in vivo and in vitro. Additionally, we found that ARRB1 interacted with BECN1/Beclin 1 and PIK3C3/Vps34, 2 major components of the BECN1 autophagic core complex, under the OGD condition but not normal conditions in neurons. Finally, deletion of Arrb1 impaired the interaction between BECN1 and PIK3C3, which is a critical event for autophagosome formation upon ischemic stress, and markedly reduced the kinase activity of PIK3C3. These findings reveal a neuroprotective role for ARRB1, in the context of cerebral ischemia, centered on the regulation of BECN1-dependent autophagosome formation.
Replenishment of NAD+ has been shown to protect against brain disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and ischemic stroke. However, whether this intervention has therapeutic effects in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is unknown. In this study, we sought to determine the potential therapeutic value of replenishment of NAD+ in ICH. In a collagenase-induced ICH (cICH) mouse model, nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), a key intermediate of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) biosynthesis, was administrated at 30 minutes post cICH from tail vein to replenish NAD+. NMN treatment did not decrease hematoma volume and hemoglobin content. However, NMN treatment significantly reduced brain edema, brain cell death, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression, microglia activation and neutrophil infiltration in brain hemorrhagic area. Mechanistically, NMN enhanced the expression of two cytoprotective proteins: heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and nuclear factor-like 2 (Nrf2). Moreover, NMN increased the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 for its activation. Finally, a prolonged NMN treatment for 7 days markedly promoted the recovery of body weight and neurological function. These results demonstrate that NMN treats brain injury in ICH by suppressing neuroinflammation/oxidative stress. The activation of Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway may contribute to the neuroprotection of NMN in ICH.
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