The middle meningeal artery (MMA) is a very important artery in neurosurgery. Many diseases, including dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF), pseudoaneurysm, true aneurysm, traumatic arteriovenous fistula (AVF), moyamoya disease (MMD), recurrent chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH), migraine and meningioma, can involve the MMA. In these diseases, the lesions occur in either the MMA itself and treatment is necessary, or the MMA is used as the pathway to treat the lesions; therefore, the MMA is very important to the development and treatment of a variety of neurosurgical diseases. However, no systematic review describing the importance of MMA has been published. In this study, we used the PUBMED database to perform a review of the literature on the MMA to increase our understanding of its role in neurosurgery. After performing this review, we found that the MMA was commonly used to access DAVFs and meningiomas. Pseudoaneurysms and true aneurysms in the MMA can be effectively treated via endovascular or surgical removal. In MMD, the MMA plays a very important role in the development of collateral circulation and indirect revascularization. For recurrent CDSHs, after burr hole irrigation and drainage have failed, MMA embolization may be attempted. The MMA can also contribute to the occurrence and treatment of migraines. Because the ophthalmic artery can ectopically originate from the MMA, caution must be taken to avoid causing damage to the MMA during operations.
Moyamoya disease (MMD) involves progressive occlusion of the intracranial internal carotid artery resulting in formation of moyamoya-like vessels at the base of the brain. It can be characterized by hemorrhage or ischemia. Direct vascular bypass is the main and most effective treatment of MMD. However, patients with MMD differ from those with normal cerebral vessels. MMD patients have unstable intracranial artery hemodynamics and a poor blood flow reserve; therefore, during the direct bypass of superficial temporal artery (STA)-middle cerebral artery (MCA) anastomosis, perioperative risk factors and anesthesia can affect the hemodynamics of these patients. When brain tissue cannot tolerate a high blood flow rate, it becomes prone to hyperperfusion syndrome, which leads to neurological function defects and can even cause intracranial hemorrhage in severe cases. The brain tissue is prone to infarction when hemodynamic equilibrium is affected. In addition, bypass vessels become susceptible to occlusion or atrophy when blood resistance increases. Even compression of the temporalis affects bypass vessels. Because the STA is used in MMD surgery, the scalp becomes ischemic and is likely to develop necrosis and infection. These complications of MMD surgery are difficult to manage and are not well understood. To date, no systematic studies of the complications that occur after direct bypass in MMD have been performed, and reported complications are hidden among various case studies; therefore, this paper presents a review and summary of the literature in PubMed on the complications of direct bypass in MMD.
Currently, the treatment of blood blister-like aneurysms (BBAs) of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery (ICA) is challenging and utilizes many therapeutic methods, including direct clipping and suturing, clipping after wrapping, clipping after suturing, coil embolization, stent-assisted coil embolization, multiple overlapping stents, flow-diverting stents, covered stents, and trapping with or without bypass. In these therapeutic approaches, the optimal treatment method for BBAs has not yet been defined based on the current understanding of BBAs of the supraclinoid ICA. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to review the literature from PubMed to discuss and analyze the pros and cons of the above approaches while adding our own viewpoints to the discussion. Among the surgical methods, direct clipping was the easiest method if the compensation of the collateral circulation of the intracranial distal ICA was sufficient or direct clipping did not induce stenosis in the parent artery. In addition, the clipping after wrapping technique should be chosen as the optimal surgical modality to prevent rebleeding from these lesions. Among the endovascular methods, multiple overlapping stents (≥3) with coils may be a feasible alternative for the treatment of ruptured BBAs. In addition, flow-diverting stents appear to have a higher rate of complete occlusion and a lower rate of retreatment and are a promising treatment method. Finally, when all treatments failed or the compensation of the collateral circulation of the intracranial distal ICA was insufficient, the extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) arterial bypass associated with surgical or endovascular trapping, a complex and highly dangerous method, was used as the treatment of last resort.
BackgroundIntracranial meningioma and glioma collision tumors are relatively uncommon and are even more rarely located within the ventricles.Case presentationHere, we report a case of a patient with an intraventricular meningioma and astrocytoma collision tumor. A 39-year-old man previously underwent excision of an astrocytoma in the triangle area of the lateral ventricle and exhibited good post-surgery recovery. The astrocytoma recurred in situ six years after the surgery, and the case was complicated by a malignant meningioma. The patient recovered well after surgery to treat the recurrence and was administered radiotherapy after discharge. In addition to reporting on this case, we conducted a literature review of collision tumors; based on this review, we propose several hypotheses regarding the formation of collision tumors.ConclusionsWe conclude that a possible cause of the collision tumor formation between the intracranial meningioma and the astrocytoma was the recurrence of an astrocytoma-induced malignancy of the arachnoid cells in the choroid plexus.
At present, there is limited understanding of chronic total occlusion (CTO) of the internal carotid artery (ICA). Therefore, the present report collected related cases from PubMed and reviewed the literature. Cerebral vessels may form collateral circulation immediately or gradually following CTO of the ICA. The natural history of CTO of the ICA includes a variety of outcomes, all of which are biased toward a non-benign progressive process and are characterized by insufficient cerebral perfusion, embolus detachment and cognitive dysfunction. The majority of cases of CTO of the ICA require treatment. In early studies, the results of external-ICA bypass were unsatisfactory, while recanalization is now considered the only viable option. The current treatment indications mainly depend on the degree of injury to the cerebrovascular reserve and the extent to which the oxygen extraction fraction is increased. The length, height and duration of ICA occlusion are also relevant, though more frequently, the condition depends on multiple factors. Endovascular interventional recanalization, carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and hybrid surgery may be conducted in a select group of patients. As novel materials are developed, the success rate of simple recanalization may gradually increase; however, hybrid surgery may be more representative of the current trend, as advanced CEA can remove carotid atherosclerosis plaques, thus reducing the technological demands of the subsequent interventional recanalization. There are many complications that may result from recanalization following CTO of the ICA, including hyperperfusion and technical errors; therefore, the operation must be conducted carefully. If the recanalization is successful, it typically results in a stable improvement of patient condition in the long term. However, despite these conclusions, more studies are required in the future to further improve current understanding of CTO of the ICA.
The diabetes mellitus (DM)‐induced reduction of neurogenesis in the hippocampus is consequently accompanied by cognitive decline. The present study set out to define the critical role played by long noncoding RNA H19 (lncRNA H19) in the apoptosis of hippocampal neurons, as well as oxidative stress (OS) in streptozotocin (STZ)‐induced DM mice through regulation of insulin‐like growth factor 2 (IGF2) methylation. The expression of lncRNA H19 in the hippocampal neurons and surviving neurons were detected. Hippocampal neurons were cultured and transfected with oe‐H19, sh‐H19, oe‐IGF2, or sh‐IGF2, followed by detection of the expressions of IGF2 and apoptosis‐related genes. Determination of the lipid peroxide and glutathione levels was conducted, while antioxidant enzyme activity was identified. The IGF2 methylation, the binding of lncRNA H19 to DNA methyltransferase, and the binding of lncRNA H19 to IGF2 promoter region were detected. DM mice exhibited high expressions of H19, as well as a decreased hippocampal neurons survival rate. Higher lncRNA H19 expression was found in DM. Upregulated lncRNA H19 significantly increased the expression of Bax and caspase‐3 but decreased that of Bcl‐2, thus promoting the apoptosis of hippocampal neuron. Besides, upregulation of lncRNA H19 induced OS. LncRNA H19 was observed to bind specifically to the IGF2 gene promoter region and promote IGF2 methylation by enriching DNA methyltransferase, thereby silencing IGF2 expression. Taken together, downregulated lncRNA H19 reduces IGF2 methylation and enhances its expression, thereby suppressing hippocampal neuron apoptosis and OS in STZ‐induced (DM) mice.
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