Sulfate aerosols exert profound impacts on human and ecosystem health, weather, and climate, but their formation mechanism remains uncertain. Atmospheric models consistently underpredict sulfate levels under diverse environmental conditions. From atmospheric measurements in two Chinese megacities and complementary laboratory experiments, we show that the aqueous oxidation of SO 2 by NO 2 is key to efficient sulfate formation but is only feasible under two atmospheric conditions: on fine aerosols with high relative humidity and NH 3 neutralization or under cloud conditions. Under polluted environments, this SO 2 oxidation process leads to large sulfate production rates and promotes formation of nitrate and organic matter on aqueous particles, exacerbating severe haze development. Effective haze mitigation is achievable by intervening in the sulfate formation process with enforced NH 3 and NO 2 control measures. In addition to explaining the polluted episodes currently occurring in China and during the 1952 London Fog, this sulfate production mechanism is widespread, and our results suggest a way to tackle this growing problem in China and much of the developing world.sulfate aerosol | severe haze | pollution | human health | climate
circMTO1 suppresses HCC progression by acting as the sponge of oncogenic miR-9 to promote p21 expression, suggesting that circMTO1 is a potential target in HCC treatment. The decrease of circMTO1 in HCC tissues may serve as a prognosis predictor for poor survival of patients. (Hepatology 2017;66:1151-1164).
The efficiency of perovskite solar cells has surged in the past few years, while the bandgaps of current perovskite materials for record efficiencies are much larger than the optimal value, which makes the efficiency far lower than the Shockley–Queisser efficiency limit. Here we show that utilizing the below-bandgap absorption of perovskite single crystals can narrow down their effective optical bandgap without changing the composition. Thin methylammonium lead triiodide single crystals with tuned thickness of tens of micrometers are directly grown on hole-transport-layer covered substrates by a hydrophobic interface confined lateral crystal growth method. The spectral response of the methylammonium lead triiodide single crystal solar cells is extended to 820 nm, 20 nm broader than the corresponding polycrystalline thin-film solar cells. The open-circuit voltage and fill factor are not sacrificed, resulting in an efficiency of 17.8% for single crystal perovskite solar cells.
Two-dimensional (2D) perovskites have been shown to be more stable than their three-dimensional (3D) counterparts due to the protection of the organic ligands. Herein a method is introduced to form 2D/3D stacking structures by the reaction of 3D perovskite with n-Butylamine (BA). Different from regular treatment with n-Butylammonium iodide (BAI) where 2D perovskite with various layers form, the reaction of BA with MAPbI only produce (BA)PbI, which has better protection due to more organic ligands in (BA)PbI than the mixture of 2D perovskites. Compared to BAI treatment, BA treatment results in smoother 2D perovskite layer on 3D perovskites with a better coverage. The photovoltaic devices with 2D/3D stacking structures show much improved stability in comparison to their 3D counterparts when subjected to heat stress tests. Moreover, the conversion of defective surface into 2D layers also induces passivation of the 3D perovskites resulting in an enhanced efficiency.
Ion migration, which occurs in regular three-dimensional perovskites, is shown to be suppressed in low-dimensional perovskites both in the dark and under illumination, an indication of better stability of these materials for solar cells and light-emitting diodes.
Layered perovskites have been shown to improve the stability of perovskite solar cells while its operation mechanism remains unclear. Here we investigate the process for the conversion of light to electrical current in high performance layered perovskite solar cells by examining its real morphology. The layered perovskite films in this study are found to be a mixture of layered and three dimensional (3D)-like phases with phase separations at micrometer and nanometer scale in both vertical and lateral directions. This phase separation is explained by the surface initiated crystallization process and the competition of the crystallization between 3D-like and layered perovskites. We further propose that the working mechanisms of the layered perovskite solar cells involve energy transfer from layered to 3D-like perovskite network. The impact of morphology on efficiency and stability of the hot-cast layered perovskite solar cells are also discussed to provide guidelines for the future improvement.
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