Reptiles are the most morphologically and physiologically diverse tetrapods, and have undergone 300 million years of adaptive evolution. Within the reptilian tetrapods, geckos possess several interesting features, including the ability to regenerate autotomized tails and to climb on smooth surfaces. Here we sequence the genome of Gekko japonicus (Schlegel's Japanese Gecko) and investigate genetic elements related to its physiology. We obtain a draft G. japonicus genome sequence of 2.55 Gb and annotated 22,487 genes. Comparative genomic analysis reveals specific gene family expansions or reductions that are associated with the formation of adhesive setae, nocturnal vision and tail regeneration, as well as the diversification of olfactory sensation. The obtained genomic data provide robust genetic evidence of adaptive evolution in reptiles.
The classical limit of quantum mechanics is usually discussed in terms of Ehrenfest*s theorem, which states that, -for a sufficiently narrow wave packet, the mean position in the quantum state will follow a classical trajectory. We show, however, that that criterion is neither necessary nor sufficient to identify the classical regime. Generally speaking, the classical limit of a quantum state is not a single classical orbit, but an ensemble of orbits. The failure of the mean position in the quantum state to follow a classical orbit often merely reflects the fact that the centroid of a classical ensemble need not follow a classical orbit. A quantum state may behave essentially classically, even when Ehrenfest's theorem does not apply, if it yields agreement with the results calculated from the Liouville equation for a classical ensemble. We illustrate this fact with examples that include both regular and chaotic classical motions.PACS number(s): 03.65.Bz, 03.6S. Sq, 05.45. +b
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