It is well known that WRKY transcription factors play essential roles in plants’ response to diverse stress responses, especially to drought and salt stresses. However, a full comprehensive analysis of this family in wheat is still missing. Here we used in silico analysis and identified 124 WRKY genes, including 294 homeologous copies from a high-quality reference genome of wheat (Triticum aestivum). We also found that the TaWRKY gene family did not undergo gene duplication rather than gene loss during the evolutionary process. The TaWRKY family members displayed different expression profiles under several abiotic stresses, indicating their unique functions in the mediation of particular responses. Furthermore, TaWRKY75-A was highly induced after polyethylene glycol and salt treatments. The ectopic expression of TaWRKY75-A in Arabidopsis enhanced drought and salt tolerance. A comparative transcriptome analysis demonstrated that TaWRKY75-A integrated jasmonic acid biosynthetic pathway and other potential metabolic pathways to increase drought and salt resistances in transgenic Arabidopsis. Our study provides valuable insights into the WRKY family in wheat and will generate a useful genetic resource for improving wheat breeding.
BackgroundMYC transcriptional factors are members of the bHLH (basic helix-loop-helix) superfamily, and play important roles in plant growth and development. Recent studies have revealed that some MYCs are involved in the crosstalk between Jasmonic acid regulatory pathway and light signaling in Arabidopsis, but such kinds of studies are rare in wheat, especially in photo-thermo-sensitive genic male sterile (PTGMS) wheat line.Results27 non-redundant MYC gene copies, which belonged to 11 TaMYC genes, were identified in the whole genome of wheat (Chinese Spring). These gene copies were distributed on 13 different chromosomes, respectively. Based on the results of phylogenetic analysis, 27 TaMYC gene copies were clustered into group I, group III, and group IV. The identified TaMYC genes copies contained different numbers of light, stress, and hormone-responsive regulatory elements in their 1500 base pair promoter regions. Besides, we found that TaMYC3 was expressed highly in stem, TaMYC5 and TaMYC9 were expressed specially in glume, and the rest of TaMYC genes were expressed in all tissues (root, stem, leaf, pistil, stamen, and glume) of the PTGMS line BS366. Moreover, we found that TaMYC3, TaMYC7, TaMYC9, and TaMYC10 were highly sensitive to methyl jasmonate (MeJA), and other TaMYC genes responded at different levels. Furthermore, we confirmed the expression profiles of TaMYC family members under different light quality and plant hormone stimuli, and abiotic stresses. Finally, we predicted the wheat microRNAs that could interact with TaMYC family members, and built up a network to show their integrative relationships.ConclusionsThis study analyzed the size and composition of the MYC gene family in wheat, and investigated stress-responsive and light quality induced expression profiles of each TaMYC gene in the PTGMS wheat line BS366. In conclusion, we obtained lots of important information of TaMYC family, and the results of this study was supposed to contribute novel insights and gene and microRNA resources for wheat breeding, especially for the improvement of PTGMS wheat lines.
Biotrophic fungi have to infect their host to obtain nutrients and must establish an interaction with the host to complete their life cycle. In this process, effectors play important roles in manipulating the host’s immune system to avoid being attacked. Sporisorium scitamineum is the causative agent of sugarcane smut, the most important disease in sugarcane-producing regions worldwide. In this work, we functionally characterized the conserved effector PEP1 in S. scitamineum. The mating process and the expression of genes in the MAPK signaling pathway and the a and b loci were adversely affected in Sspep1-null mutants. The requirement for SsPEP1 in pathogenicity and symptom development was allele dosage-dependent, i.e., deleting one Sspep1 allele in the mating pair turned a normal black whip with abundant teliospores into a white whip with few teliospores; however, deleting both alleles almost abolished infectivity and whip development. ΔSspep1 mutants produced significantly less mycelium mass within infected plants. Additionally, SsPEP1 was identified as a potent inhibitor of sugarcane POD-1a peroxidase activity, implying that SsPEP1 may function to relieve reactive oxygen species-related stress within the host plant. Taken together, our work demonstrated that SsPEP1 is a multifaceted effector essential for S. scitamineum growth, development, and pathogenicity.
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