ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory properties, but the immune-metabolic progression from dietary oil remains to be investigated. Here we identified 17,18-epoxyeicostetraenoic acid (17,18-EpETE) as an anti-allergic metabolite generated in the gut from dietary ω3 α-linolenic acid (ALA). Biochemical and imaging mass spectrometry analyses revealed increased ALA and its metabolites, especially eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), in the intestines of mice receiving ALA-rich linseed oil (Lin-mice). In murine food allergy model, the decreased incidence of allergic diarrhea in Lin-mice was due to impairment of mast cell degranulation without affecting allergen-specific serum IgE. Liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry-based mediator lipidomics identified 17,18-EpETE as a major ω3 EPA-derived metabolite generated from dietary ALA in the gut, and 17,18-EpETE exhibits anti-allergic function when administered in vivo. These findings suggest that metabolizing dietary ω3 PUFAs generates 17,18-EpETE, which is an endogenous anti-allergic metabolite and potentially is a therapeutic target to control intestinal allergies.
Recently, micro power generation using electrets has attracted much attention due to its large power output at a low frequency range. Since the theoretical power output is proportional to the square of the surface charge density of the electret, the development of a high-performance electret is required. In the present study, it is shown that the surface charge density of a CYTOP electret is significantly improved by the addition of terminal groups. Based on this fact, a novel high-performance polymer electret has been developed by doping a silane-coupling reagent into the polymer. A series of measurements of surface potential and TSD (thermally stimulated discharge) spectra was made for various CYTOP films prepared with different silane-coupling reagent concentrations. It is found that the surface charge density, charge stability and thermal resistibility of electric charges are markedly improved by the doping. A surface charge density of 1.5 mC cm −2 , which is three times larger than that of Teflon AF, has been obtained on a 15 μm thick film. In addition, the thermal stability of the CYTOP electret is superior to that of Teflon AF. Power generation experiment is also performed using the patterned CYTOP electret of 20 × 20 mm 2. At a low seismic frequency of 20 Hz, 0.7 mW power generation has been accomplished, which is about 2.5 times higher than our previous result.
We present the first micromachined rotational electret power generator, linearized theoretical model of electret power generation, and novel method to produce uniformly charged electret. We also improved our previously developed [ I , 21 thin film Teflon AF 1601-S electret technology with respect to dielectric thickness, charge uniformity, and processability. In demonstration, our prototype power generator successfully generated > 25pW with electret thickness of 9pm, effective charge density of -2.8xlO4C/m2, and rotational speed of4170RPM.
This article focuses on the feedback control of turbulence for skin friction reduction and reviews the state of the art of control algorithms and distributed microsensors and microactuators. From a viewpoint of possible practical applications, we discuss only the control schemes based on the wall-surface sensing of shear stress and pressure fluctuations with their assessment in direct numerical simulation. The rapid development of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) flow sensors/actuators is sketched, and a prototype feedback control system assembled for a turbulent channel flow is introduced. Finally, several major remaining issues in control algorithms and massive fabrication of microdevices are discussed.
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