Age-related chronic inflammation is a major risk factor for the incidence and prevalence of age-related diseases, including infectious and neurodegenerative diseases. We previously reported that a lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus paracasei KW3110, activated macrophages and suppressed inflammation in mice and humans. In this study, we investigated whether long-term intake of heat-killed L. paracasei KW3110 modulated age-related inflammation and altered the gut microbiota in physiologically aged mice. Compared with age-matched control mice, fecal analyses of gut microbiota revealed that intake of L. paracasei KW3110 mitigated age-related changes of beneficial bacterial composition, including the Bifidobacteriaceae family. L. paracasei KW3110 intake also mitigated age-related immune defects by reducing the prevalence of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) -producing inflammatory CD4-positive T cells in the lamina propia of the small intestine, and reduced serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, L. paracasei KW3110 intake suppressed retinal inflammation by reducing proinflammatory cytokine-producing macrophage, and age-related retinal cell loss. Taken together, these findings suggested that L. paracasei KW3110 mitigated age-related chronic inflammation through modulation of gut microbiota composition and immune system functions in aged mice, and also reduced age-related retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effect in age-related senescent changes of the retina.
Here we present a DNA module platform for developing simple aptamer sensors based on a microarray format combined with secondary structure prediction in silico. The platform comprises four parts: (i) aptamer, (ii) joint module, (iii) terminal stem, and (iv) a DNAzyme that catalyzes a redox reaction controlled by a structural change induced by aptamer/target binding. First, we developed a joint module, capable of sensing a conformational change in the aptamer region, that was linked to the signal transmission activity of a DNAzyme as the reporter in a concentration-dependent manner with the AMP aptamer. This module design was then used to generate an arginine sensor simply by replacing the AMP aptamer region with a previously reported arginine aptamer. Using this DNA module platform, we were also able to customize a microarray containing >10,000 sequences designed by in silico secondary structure prediction and successfully identify a new aptamer against patulin. Our results show that the DNA module platform can be used to readily devise sensors based on known aptamers as well as create new aptamer sensors by array-based screening.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.