Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumors in the human digestive tract, but their molecular etiology and cellular origin are unknown. Sequencing of c-kit complementary DNA, which encodes a proto-oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinase (KIT), from five GISTs revealed mutations in the region between the transmembrane and tyrosine kinase domains. All of the corresponding mutant KIT proteins were constitutively activated without the KIT ligand, stem cell factor (SCF). Stable transfection of the mutant c-kit complementary DNAs induced malignant transformation of Ba/F3 murine lymphoid cells, suggesting that the mutations contribute to tumor development. GISTs may originate from the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) because the development of ICCs is dependent on the SCF-KIT interaction and because, like GISTs, these cells express both KIT and CD34.
Abstract-Adiponectin is a novel, adipose-specific protein abundantly present in the circulation, and it has antiatherogenic properties. We analyzed the plasma adiponectin concentrations in age-and body mass index (BMI)-matched nondiabetic and type 2 diabetic subjects with and without coronary artery disease (CAD). Plasma levels of adiponectin in the diabetic subjects without CAD were lower than those in nondiabetic subjects (6.6Ϯ0.4 versus 7.9Ϯ0.5 g/mL in men, 7.6Ϯ0.7 versus 11.7Ϯ1.0 g/mL in women; PϽ0.001). The plasma adiponectin concentrations of diabetic patients with CAD were lower than those of diabetic patients without CAD (4.0Ϯ0.4 versus 6.6Ϯ0.4 g/mL, PϽ0.001 in men; 6.3Ϯ0.8 versus 7.6Ϯ0.7 g/mL in women). In contrast, plasma levels of leptin did not differ between diabetic patients with and without CAD. The presence of microangiopathy did not affect the plasma adiponectin levels in diabetic patients. Significant, univariate, inverse correlations were observed between adiponectin levels and fasting plasma insulin (rϭϪ0.18, PϽ0.01) and glucose (rϭϪ0.26, PϽ0.001) levels. In multivariate analysis, plasma insulin did not independently affect the plasma adiponectin levels. BMI, serum triglyceride concentration, and the presence of diabetes or CAD remained significantly related to plasma adiponectin concentrations. Weight reduction significantly elevated plasma adiponectin levels in the diabetic subjects as well as the nondiabetic subjects. These results suggest that the decreased plasma adiponectin concentrations in diabetes may be an indicator of macroangiopathy.
Plasma concentrations of adiponectin, a novel adipose-specific protein with putative antiatherogenic and antiinflammatory effects, were found to be decreased in Japanese individuals with obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, conditions commonly associated with insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. To further characterize the relationship between adiponectinemia and adiposity, insulin sensitivity, insulinemia, and glucose tolerance, we measured plasma adiponectin concentrations, body composition (dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry), insulin sensitivity (M, hyperinsulinemic clamp), and glucose tolerance (75-g oral glucose tolerance test) in 23 Caucasians and 121 Pima Indians, a population with a high propensity for obesity and type 2 diabetes. Plasma adiponectin concentration was negatively correlated with percent body fat (r = -0.43), waist-to-thigh ratio (r = -0.46), fasting plasma insulin concentration (r = -0.63), and 2-h glucose concentration (r = -0.38), and positively correlated with M (r = 0.59) (all P < 0.001); all relations were evident in both ethnic groups. In a multivariate analysis, fasting plasma insulin concentration, M, and waist-to-thigh ratio, but not percent body fat or 2-h glucose concentration, were significant independent determinates of adiponectinemia, explaining 47% of the variance (r(2) = 0.47). Differences in adiponectinemia between Pima Indians and Caucasians (7.2 +/- 2.6 vs. 10.2 +/- 4.3 microg/ml, P < 0.0001) and between Pima Indians with normal, impaired, and diabetic glucose tolerance (7.5 +/- 2.7, 6.1 +/- 2.0, 5.5 +/- 1.6 microg/ml, P < 0.0001) remained significant after adjustment for adiposity, but not after additional adjustment for M or fasting insulin concentration. These results confirm that obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with low plasma adiponectin concentrations in different ethnic groups and indicate that the degree of hypoadiponectinemia is more closely related to the degree of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia than to the degree of adiposity and glucose intolerance.
Here we investigated the biological functions of adiponectin/ACRP30, a fat-derived hormone, by disrupting the gene that encodes it in mice. Adiponectin/ACRP30-knockout (KO) mice showed delayed clearance of free fatty acid in plasma, low levels of fatty-acid transport protein 1 (FATP-1) mRNA in muscle, high levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) mRNA in adipose tissue and high plasma TNF-alpha concentrations. The KO mice exhibited severe diet-induced insulin resistance with reduced insulin-receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1)-associated phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3-kinase) activity in muscle. Viral mediated adiponectin/ACRP30 expression in KO mice reversed the reduction of FATP-1 mRNA, the increase of adipose TNF-alpha mRNA and the diet-induced insulin resistance. In cultured myocytes, TNF-alpha decreased FATP-1 mRNA, IRS-1-associated PI3-kinase activity and glucose uptake, whereas adiponectin increased these parameters. Our results indicate that adiponectin/ACRP30 deficiency and high TNF-alpha levels in KO mice reduced muscle FATP-1 mRNA and IRS-1-mediated insulin signaling, resulting in severe diet-induced insulin resistance.
Insulin resistance and its dreaded consequence, type 2 diabetes, are major causes of atherosclerosis. Adiponectin is an adipose-specific plasma protein that possesses anti-atherogenic properties, such as the suppression of adhesion molecule expression in vascular endothelial cells and cytokine production from macrophages. Plasma adiponectin concentrations are decreased in obese and type 2 diabetic subjects with insulin resistance. A regimen that normalizes or increases the plasma adiponectin might prevent atherosclerosis in patients with insulin resistance. In this study, we demonstrate the inducing effects of thiazolidinediones (TZDs), which are synthetic PPAR␥ ligands, on the expression and secretion of adiponectin in humans and rodents in vivo and in vitro. The administration of TZDs significantly increased the plasma adiponectin concentrations in insulin resistant humans and rodents without affecting their body weight. Adiponectin mRNA expression was normalized or increased by TZDs in the adipose tissues of obese mice. In cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes, TZD derivatives enhanced the mRNA expression and secretion of adiponectin in a dose-and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, these effects were mediated through the activation of the promoter by the TZDs. On the other hand, TNF-␣, which is produced more in an insulinresistant condition, dose-dependently reduced the expression of adiponectin in adipocytes by suppressing its promoter activity. TZDs restored this inhibitory effect by TNF-␣. TZDs might prevent atherosclerotic vascular disease in insulin-resistant patients by inducing the production of adiponectin through direct effect on its promoter and antagonizing the effect of TNF-␣ on the adiponectin promoter.
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