The Morpho-butterfly wing reflects interfered brilliant blue, which originates from nanostructures on its scales, for any incidence angle of white light. We have, for the first time, fabricated a Morpho-butterfly-scale quasi-structure using focused-ion-beam chemical-vapor-deposition (FIB-CVD) and observed brilliant blue reflection from this quasi-structure with an optical microscope. We measured the reflection from real Morpho-butterfly scales and from the quasi-structure with a photonic multi-channel spectral analyzer system. The reflection spectra of the quasi-structure were very similar to those of Morpho-butterfly scales.
The CHNHPbI perovskite solar cells have been fabricated using three-porous-layered electrodes as, 〈glass/F-doped tin oxide (FTO)/dense TiO/porous TiO-perovskite/porous ZrO-perovskite/porous carbon-perovskite〉 for light stability tests. Without encapsulation in air, the CHNHPbI perovskite solar cells maintained 80% of photoenergy conversion efficiency from the initial value up to 100 h under light irradiation (AM 1.5, 100 mW cm). Considering the color variation of the CHNHPbI perovskite layer, the significant improvement of light stability is due to the moisture-blocking effect of the porous carbon back electrodes. The strong interaction between carbon and CHNHPbI perovskite was proposed by the measurements of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction of the porous carbon-perovskite layers.
Mechanical characteristics and applications of diamondlike-carbon cantilevers fabricated by focused-ion-beam chemical vapor depositionMechanical characteristics and its annealing effect of diamondlike-carbon nanosprings fabricated by focused-ionbeam chemical vapor depositionThe Morpho-butterfly wing reflects interfered brilliant blue, which originates from nanostructures on its scales, for any incidence angle of white light. We have fabricated a Morpho-butterfly-scale quasistructure using focused ion beam chemical vapor deposition and observed brilliant blue reflection from this quasistructure with an optical microscope. We measured the reflection from real Morpho-butterfly scales and from the quasistructure with a photonic multichannel spectral analyzer system. The reflection spectra of the quasistructure were very similar to those of Morpho-butterfly scales.
We prove that local observables of the set of GHZ operators for particles of spin higher than 1 2 reduce to direct sums of the spin-1 2 operators σ x and σ y and, therefore, no new contradictions with local realism arise by considering them.
Nanoscale chemical imaging using scanning tunneling microscopy is demonstrated with a core-level excitation of the probed element by a synchrotron radiation light. Pronounced element-specific contrasts were observed in the spatial resolution of approximately 10 nm on checkerboard-patterned Ni and Fe samples in differential photoinduced current images taken with the scanning tunneling microscopy tip under the synchrotron radiation irradiation whose photon energies are above and below the Ni (Fe) L absorption edge. The local detection of the photoinduced secondary electrons through the surface barrier lowered by the proximate tip and/or via the tunneling process probably plays an important role in achieving the high-spatial resolution.
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