Аннотация. На сегодняшний момент проблема защиты персонала при производстве препаратов на основе нефтеокисляющих бактерий, служащие основой биологического метода очистки почвы и воды после разливов нефти и нефтепродуктов, является одной из острых проблем. Основное оборудование, применяемое при производстве микроорганизмов деструкторов нефти, является ферментер. По своей сути процесс ферментации относят к критическому, в связи к особым требованиям стерильности ведения производства. В данной статье выделены основные этапы процесса ферментации для производства микроорганизмов деструкторов нефти и нефтепродуктов, а также отдельно описаны риски возможные при ведении производства. © Сетевое издание «Нефтегазовое дело». 2017. №6 http://ogbus.ruinteract directly with the active microflora, as well as the components of detergents, both single and their complex interaction, are noted in detail and the shortcomings of the means used in production today and their effect on the human body are noted. A method for the modernization of detergents has been proposed to reduce the risks of personnel poisoning, as well as to reduce the possible adaptation of bacteria.To reduce the risks of infection, methods for modernizing traditional methods in the operation of the fermenter are proposed. Automation of the units of the device will allow avoiding the contact of production personnel with bacteria and reagents at many stages of work, and also reduce the human factor in conducting production, thereby increasing the productivity of the preparation, by maintaining optimal conditions for the growth and development of oiloxidizing bacteria.Ключевые слова: отравление, производственный персонал, управление рисками, ферментация, автоматизация, поверхносно-активные вещества, перекись водорода, нефтеокисляющие бактерии, аэробный процесс.
Improving working conditions is a policy that primarily targets workers. This strategy is aimed at increasing the degree of protection and reducing risks at the workplace, organizing modern technologies and simultaneously safe workers. The concept, as a single defining task or order of submissions, provides an opportunity to acquire a common understanding of the process or phenomenon under study. The article considers modern concepts on labor protection organization, analyzed the state of labor protection management systems and dynamics of industrial injuries at three oil and gas processing enterprises in order to identify the most effective concepts on labor protection organization.
The article is devoted to the study of the oil industry in Russia. In particular, the monitoring of the system for ensuring the industrial and environmental safety of oil enterprises is being studied in order to reduce the risks of accidents and unforeseen situations. Audit was selected as one of the monitoring tools. The audit process was considered at example of diesel hydrotreating unit of L-24-7 fuel located on the territory of the PJSC Bashneft Bashneft - UNPZ refinery. Based on the analysis, a block diagram of the audit process was compiled and an approximate form of the audit report at the diesel hydrotreatment plant was presented. Based on the results of the study conducted on system monitoring for compliance with the requirements of industrial safety, labor protection and the environment, it was concluded that it is necessary to conduct an audit of this plant in a timely and regular manner. This, in turn, will increase the likelihood of identifying weaknesses and corresponding risks in the early stages of the development of the problem.
This article considers the possibility of improving the safety during operation of gas turbine plants due to improving the strength characteristics of rotor blades, by using ultra-finegrained ferrite-martensitic steel of the EI-961 class for their manufacture. It is known that one of the main elements of stationary gas turbine plants is rotor blades made of EI-961 steel, which is a typical representative of ferrite-martensitic steels. Due to the fact that the blade complex determines the safety and service life of gas turbine plants, improving the strength characteristics of ferrite-martensitic stainless steels, it is important and relevant to increase the reliable and safe operation of such plants. As a result, studies have been carried out using EI-961 - stainless heat-resistant high-alloy martensitic-grade chromium-nickel steel as the starting material. To form an ultrafine structure, the samples were subjected to intense plastic deformation followed by heat treatment. It was revealed that the use of intense plastic deformation by torsion and equivocal angular pressing led to a significant increase in the microhardness of steel EI-961, which in turn leads to an increase in strength characteristics. To evaluate the mechanical properties, tensile tests of standard samples were carried out, which showed that additional re-hardening of samples after standard thermal treatment of martensitic steel EI-961 led to an increase in strength, it is clear that in an ultrafine state, the strength gain is greater than in coarse-grained (in an ultrafine state - 30%, coarse-grained - 11%), while maintaining ductility 5%.
The article considers the possibility of introducing ergonomic indicators of the workplace into the system of lean production of the machine-building enterprise. The feasibility of taking into account ergonomic indicators is proved by the main tool of lean production - mapping of the flow of creation of production of the “shaft” part. Studies have shown that the accounting of ergonomic indicators allows to identify losses related to psychophysical factors affecting the employee, environmental factors of the employee (including production equipment) and eliminate them by planning and developing appropriate measures.
Control systems and parameter monitoring systems are currently being implemented in technical systems and, thereby, are improving them. As a result, in production, in the process of management, there is a need for special mathematical methods that allow making scientifically sound decisions. This is especially relevant in pipeline transport, and in particular in the gas industry, when solving the problems of mathematical modeling of processes and optimizing gas transportation modes. Simulation of equipment operation modes has already been put into practice and is an integral part of the operational control of the gas transportation system
Despite the variety of existing methods of wastewater treatment, this problem can not be considered solved for the woodworking industry. Taking into account that the waste water of plywood-board plants includes phenols, formaldehyde and many other toxic substances, the development of a method for their treatment is an extremely important and actual task. In this regard, we studied the effectiveness of wastewater treatment of the Ufa plywood-board factory (UPBF) by ozonation in the presence of the available and most studied heterogeneous catalysts: Fe 2 O 3 , applied in the form of nanofilms of 0.5-1.0 mm particles γ-Al 2 O 3 ; Al 2 O 3 , applied in the form of nanofilms 2.5-3.0 mm particles of TiO 2 ; MnO 2 , applied in the form of nanofilms 2.5-3.0 mm particles of TiO 2 . Optimal cleaning conditions were determined by the kinetic curves of phenol decomposition. The results of the conducted experiments on catalytic ozonation of wastewater showed a high purification effect. COD decreased 1.7 (Al 2 O 3 , MnO 2 ) and 3 times (Fe 2 O 3 ) compared to non-catalyst ozonation. The obtained results allow us to confidently assert that in order to improve the efficiency of treatment of UPBF's wastewater needs ozonation to be carried out in the presence of a heterogeneous nanocatalyst Fe 2 O 3 , which is used in a small amount, so there is no need to purify water from iron (III) ions as in homogeneous catalysis. The concentration of iron ion (III) did not exceed the maximum permissible concentration in drinking water (0.3 mg/dm 3 ). The effect of treatment of COD is up to 96%. The paper presents physical and chemical parameters of the quality of the original wastewater and after ozonation in the presence of the catalyst Fe 2 O 3 . The studied method of purification makes it possible to reduce the content of phenol to the standard quality index (0.01 mg/dm 3 ). Preliminary ozonation of wastewater increases the efficiency of further biological treatment.Keywords: oxidative method, catalytic ozonation, heterogeneous nanocatalyst, sewage disposal of enterprises of wood-based industries.
Аннотация. Последнее десятилетие остается актуальной задача переработки попутного нефтяного газа (ПНГ) на отечественных нефтедобывающих предприятиях, в том числе в регионах с суровым арктическим климатом. ПНГ является неотъемлемым элементом в процессе добычи нефти. За последнее десятилетие Россия вышла на лидирующее место в мире по количеству сжигания ПНГ в нефтепромысловых факелах. Это происходит, в основном, из-за невыгодной экономической позиции, так как цена ПНГ, реализуемого для дальнейшей переработки в виде топлива или энергии, является низкой. По своему составу и свойствам ПНГ не уступает природному газу и имеет более широкую сферу применения. С лёгкой нефтью обычно добывают более жирные газы, с тяжёлой нефтью-в основном сухие газы. Ценность газа возрастает с увеличением содержания углеводородов в его 115
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