Complex disease by definition results from the interplay of genetic and environmental factors. However, it is currently unclear how gene-environment interaction can best be used to locate complex disease susceptibility loci, particularly in the context of studies where between 1,000 and 1,000,000 markers are scanned for association with disease. We present a joint test of marginal association and gene-environment interaction for case-control data. We compare the power and sample size requirements of this joint test to other analyses: the marginal test of genetic association, the standard test for gene-environment interaction based on logistic regression, and the case-only test for interaction that exploits gene-environment independence. Although for many penetrance models the joint test of genetic marginal effect and interaction is not the most powerful, it is nearly optimal across all penetrance models we considered. In particular, it generally has better power than the marginal test when the genetic effect is restricted to exposed subjects and much better power than the tests of gene-environment interaction when the genetic effect is not restricted to a particular exposure level. This makes the joint test an attractive tool for large-scale association scans where the true gene-environment interaction model is unknown.
An on-field colorimetric sensing strategy employing gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and a paper-based analytical platform was investigated for mercury ion (Hg(2+)) detection at water sources. By utilizing thymine-Hg(2+)-thymine (T-Hg(2+)-T) coordination chemistry, label-free detection oligonucleotide sequences were attached to unmodified gold nanoparticles to provide rapid mercury ion sensing without complicated and time-consuming thiolated or other costly labeled probe preparation processes. Not only is this strategy's sensing mechanism specific toward Hg(2+), rather than other metal ions, but also the conformational change in the detection oligonucleotide sequences introduces different degrees of AuNP aggregation that causes the color of AuNPs to exhibit a mixture variance. To eliminate the use of sophisticated equipment and minimize the power requirement for data analysis and transmission, the color variance of multiple detection results were transferred and concentrated on cellulose-based paper analytical devices, and the data were subsequently transmitted for the readout and storage of results using cloud computing via a smartphone. As a result, a detection limit of 50 nM for Hg(2+) spiked pond and river water could be achieved. Furthermore, multiple tests could be performed simultaneously with a 40 min turnaround time. These results suggest that the proposed platform possesses the capability for sensitive and high-throughput on-site mercury pollution monitoring in resource-constrained settings.
We examined the overall survival rates of a national cohort to determine optimal treatments and prognostic factors for patients with metachronous second primary head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (mspHNSCCs) at different stages and sites. We analyzed data of mspHNSCC patients collected from the Taiwan Cancer Registry database. The patients were categorized into four groups based on the treatment modality: Group 1 (control arm; chemotherapy [CT] alone), Group 2 (reirradiation [re‐RT] alone with intensity‐modulated radiotherapy [IMRT]), Group 3 (concurrent chemoradiotherapy alone [irradiation with IMRT]), and Group 4 (salvage surgery with or without RT or CT). We enrolled 1741 mspHNSCC patients without distant metastasis. Multivariate Cox regression analyses revealed that Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) ≥6, stage of second HNSCC, stage of first HNSCC, and duration from first primary HNSCC of <3 years were significant poor independent prognostic risk factors for overall survival. After adjustment, adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the overall all‐cause mortality risk at mspHNSCC clinical stages III and IV were 0.72 (0.40–1.82), 0.52 (0.35–0.75), and 0.32 (0.22–0.45) in Groups 2, 3, and 4, respectively. A Cox regression analysis indicated that a re‐RT dose of ≥6000 cGy was an independent protective prognostic factor for treatment modalities. CCI ≥ 6, stage of second HNSCC, stage of first HNSCC, and duration from first primary HNSCC of <3 years were significant poor independent prognostic risk factors for overall survival. A re‐RT dose of ≥6000 cGy may be necessary for mspHNSCCs.
The mammalian imprinted Dlk1-Dio3 locus produces multiple long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) from the maternally inherited allele, including Meg3 (i.e., Gtl2) in the mammalian genome. Although this locus has well-characterized functions in stem cell and tumor contexts, its role during neural development is unknown. By profiling cell types at each stage of embryonic stem cell-derived motor neurons (ESC~MNs) that recapitulate spinal cord development, we uncovered that lncRNAs expressed from the Dlk1-Dio3 locus are predominantly and gradually enriched in rostral motor neurons (MNs). Mechanistically, Meg3 and other Dlk1-Dio3 locus-derived lncRNAs facilitate Ezh2/Jarid2 interactions. Loss of these lncRNAs compromises the H3K27me3 landscape, leading to aberrant expression of progenitor and caudal Hox genes in postmitotic MNs. Our data thus illustrate that these lncRNAs in the Dlk1-Dio3 locus, particularly Meg3, play a critical role in maintaining postmitotic MN cell fate by repressing progenitor genes and they shape MN subtype identity by regulating Hox genes.
Dental students have encountered changes in the teaching format amid the SARS CoV-2 pandemic. This study aims to evaluate the attitudes of dental students of one medical university toward online courses and compare them with those of non-dental students amid the SARS CoV-2 pandemic.
A cross-sectional survey with a self-report online questionnaire was conducted at the medical university in May 2020 in Taipei. Students from the School of Dentistry, School of Dental Technology, and School of Oral Hygiene Study were enrolled in our survey.
In total, 473 students responded to the survey, 318 (67.2%) of whom were dental students. Overall, 366 (77%) students agreed with the change to online learning. Only 10.4% of students thought that dental professional courses with a laboratory format could be changed to online courses. Dental students were significantly more worried than non-dental students about being infected with COVID-19 and about the COVID-19 pandemic continuing.
In conclusion, changing to online learning seems to be perceived as feasible by students. However, more discussion about changing dental professional courses with a laboratory format to online courses considering the attitudes from students is needed.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.