In eukaryotic replication licensing, Cdt1 plays a key role by recruiting the MCM2-7 complex onto the origin of chromosome. The C-terminal domain of mouse Cdt1 (mCdt1C), the most conserved region in Cdt1, is essential for licensing and directly interacts with the MCM2-7 complex. We have determined the structures of mCdt1CS (mCdt1C_small; residues 452 to 557) and mCdt1CL (mCdt1C_large; residues 420 to 557) using X-ray crystallography and solution NMR spectroscopy, respectively. While the N-terminal 31 residues of mCdt1CL form a flexible loop with a short helix near the middle, the rest of mCdt1C folds into a winged helix structure. Together with the middle domain of mouse Cdt1 (mCdt1M, residues 172-368), this study reveals that Cdt1 is formed with a tandem repeat of the winged helix domain. The winged helix fold is also conserved in other licensing factors including archaeal ORC and Cdc6, which supports an idea that these replication initiators may have evolved from a common ancestor. Based on the structure of mCdt1C, in conjunction with the biochemical analysis, we propose a binding site for the MCM complex within the mCdt1C.
BackgroundKorea is one of the fastest aging countries and is expected to become a super-aged society within 12 years. The Korean Urban Rural Elderly (KURE) study was developed to evaluate the epidemiological characteristics and establish the prevention and management of major disorders of the elderly in Korea.Methods/DesignThe KURE study is a community-based prospective cohort study on health, aging, and common geriatric disorders of Korean elderly persons aged at least 65 years. To construct a cohort reflecting both urban and rural areas, we selected 2 representative communities in the country. To establish multidisciplinary approaches to geriatric health, this study was performed by researchers in the divisions of geriatrics, preventive medicine, endocrinology, and sociology. The baseline examinations began in 2012; the study will follow more than 4,000 elderly Koreans over 10 years. The first and second follow-up health examinations will be performed every 4 years. Every 2 years after each health examination, inter-assessment interview will be conducted to improve participant retention.DiscussionThe KURE study will provide longitudinal epidemiologic data on health, aging, and common geriatric disorders of the elderly in Korea. This is a comprehensive, multidisciplinary study of the elderly with respect to biological, physical, socio-economic, and environmental factors. The results of this study will contribute to improve public health and welfare policies for the aging society in Korea.
Cervical cancer is one of the most common gynecological malignancies in Korea, although the incidence has been declining in recent years. This study explored whether antioxidant vitamin intakes influenced the risk of cervical cancer. The association between antioxidant vitamin intakes and cervical cancer risk was calculated for 144 cervical cancer cases and 288 age-matched, hospital-based controls using unconditional logistic regression models. Cases reported statistically lower mean dietary intakes of vitamin A, beta -carotene, and vitamin C than did controls. Total intakes of vitamins A and E, which included both dietary and supplement intake, were also lower in cases. Those patients in the highest quartiles of dietary vitamin A, beta -carotene, and vitamin C intakes had statistically significantly lower cervical cancer risks than those in the lowest quartiles for vitamin A, beta -carotene, and vitamin C: odds ratio (OR) = 0.36 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.19-0.69), OR = 0.48 (CI = 0.26-0.88), and OR = 0.36 (CI = 0.18-0.69), respectively. Total intakes of vitamins A, C, and E were strongly inversely associated with cervical cancer risk: OR = 0.35 (CI = 0.19-0.65), OR = 0.35 (CI = 0.19-0.66), and OR = 0.53 (CI = 0.28-0.99), respectively. The findings support a role for increased antioxidant vitamin intake in decreasing the risk of cervical cancer. These associations need to be assessed in large prospective studies with long-term follow-up.
In this work, the coplanar waveguide is fabricated on a PES (poly[ether sulfone]) substrate for application to a flexible monolithic microwave integrated circuit, and its RF characteristics were thoroughly investigated. The quality factor of the coplanar waveguide on PES is 40.3 at a resonance frequency of 46.7 GHz. A fishbone-type transmission line (FTTL) structure is also fabricated on the PES substrate, and its RF characteristics are investigated. The wavelength of the FTTL on PES is 5.11 mm at 20 GHz, which is 55% of the conventional coplanar waveguide on PES. Using the FTTL, an impedance transformer is fabricated on PES. The size of the impedance transformer is 0.318 mm × 0.318 mm, which is 69.2% of the size of the transformer fabricated by the conventional coplanar waveguide on PES. The impedance transformer showed return loss values better than -12.9 dB from 5 GHz to 50 GHz and an insertion loss better than -1.13 dB in the same frequency range.
BackgroundConflicting data exist regarding the association of body mass index (BMI) changes with all-cause and cardiovascular (CV) mortality. The current study investigated the association between changes in BMI and all-cause, CV, and non-CV mortality in a large cohort of middle-aged adults.MethodsA total of 379,535 adults over 40 years of age without pre-existing CV disease or cancer at baseline were enrolled to undergo a series of at least three health examinations of biennial intervals. Changes in BMI between baseline, midpoint follow-up, and final health examination during mean 9.3 years were defined according to the pattern of BMI change as follows: stable, sustained gain, sustained loss, and fluctuation. The relationship between BMI change category and mortality was assessed by multivariate Cox regression reporting hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI).ResultsDuring a mean follow-up of 10.7 years for mortality, 12,378 deaths occurred from all causes, of which 2,114 were CV and 10,264 were non-CV deaths. Sustained BMI gain was associated with the lower risk of all-cause (HR 0.89, 95% CI: 0.83–0.95), CV (HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.72–0.98), and non-CV mortality (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.84–0.96) compared with stable BMI. Conversely, sustained BMI loss (HR 1.25, 95% CI 1.19–1.32) and fluctuation (HR 1.13, 95% CI 1.08–1.19) displayed a higher risk of all-cause mortality compared with stable BMI, which was mainly attributable to the increase in non-CV mortality.ConclusionSustained BMI gains were associated with reduced risk of all-cause, CV, and non-CV mortality in middle-aged healthy adults.
Metabolic syndrome was associated with cognitive impairment, and this risk was synergistically increased when metabolic syndrome was combined with low 25(OH)D. A focus on individuals with metabolic syndrome and low 25(OH)D might be helpful to identify older adults who are at risk of cognitive impairment. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 1069-1075.
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