of spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) has attracted significant
attention in recent years due to the increasing demand for corresponding
critical metals/materials and growing pressure on the environmental
impact of solid waste disposal. A range of investigations have been
carried out for recycling spent LIBs to obtain either battery materials
or individual compounds. For the effective recovery of materials to
be enhanced, physical pretreatment is usually applied to obtain different
streams of waste materials ensuring efficient separation for further
processing. Subsequently, a metallurgical process is used to extract
metals or separate impurities from a specific waste stream so that
the recycled materials or compounds can be further prepared by incorporating
principles of materials engineering. In this review, the current status
of spent LIB recycling is summarized in light of the whole recycling
process, especially focusing on the hydrometallurgy. In addition to
understanding different hydrometallurgical technologies including
acidic leaching, alkaline leaching, chemical precipitation, and solvent
extraction, the existing challenges for process optimization during
the recycling are critically analyzed. Moreover, the energy consumption
of different processes is evaluated and discussed. It is expected
that this research could provide a guideline for improving spent LIB
recycling, and this topic can be further stimulated for industrial
Two-dimensional (2D), layered transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) can grow in two different growth directions, that is, horizontal and vertical. In the horizontal growth, 2D TMDC layers grow in planar direction with their basal planes parallel to growth substrates. In the vertical growth, 2D TMDC layers grow standing upright on growth substrates exposing their edge sites rather than their basal planes. The two distinct morphologies present unique materials properties suitable for specific applications, such as horizontal TMDCs for optoelectronics and vertical TMDCs for electrochemical reactions. Precise control of the growth orientation is essential for realizing the true potential of these 2D materials for large-scale, practical applications. In this Letter, we investigate the transition of vertical-to-horizontal growth directions in 2D molybdenum (or tungsten) disulfide and study the underlying growth mechanisms and parameters that dictate such transition. We reveal that the thickness of metal seed layers plays a critical role in determining their growth directions. With thick (>∼ 3 nm) seed layers, the vertical growth is dominant, while the horizontal growth occurs with thinner seed layers. This finding enables the synthesis of novel 2D TMDC heterostructures with anisotropic layer orientations and transport properties. The present study paves a way for developing a new class of 2D TMDCs with unconventional materials properties.
We report the realization of a coherent perfect absorber, using a pair of passive resonators coupled to a microwave transmission line in the background, which can completely absorb light in its parity-time (PT-)symmetric phase but not in its broken phase. Instead of balancing material gain and loss, we exploit the incident waves in the open system as an effective gain so that ideal PT symmetry can be established by using only passive materials. Such a route will be effective to construct PT-symmetric metamaterials and also tunable PT-symmetric optical elements in general. It also provides a flexible platform for studying exceptional-point physics with both electric and magnetic responses.
Local hypoxia in tumors is an undesirable consequence of photodynamic therapy (PDT), which will lead to greatly reduced effectiveness of this therapy. Bioreductive pro-drugs that can be activated at low-oxygen conditions will be highly cytotoxic under hypoxia in tumors. Based on this principle, double silica-shelled upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) nanostructure capable of co-delivering photosensitizer (PS) molecules and a bioreductive pro-drug (tirapazamine, TPZ) were designed (TPZ-UC/PS), with which a synergetic tumor therapeutic effect has been achieved first by UC-based (UC-) PDT under normal oxygen environment, immediately followed by the induced cytotoxicity of activated TPZ when oxygen is depleted by UC-PDT. Treatment with TPZ-UC/PS plus NIR laser resulted in a remarkably suppressed tumor growth as compared to UC-PDT alone, implying that the delivered TPZ has a profound effect on treatment outcomes for the much-enhanced cytotoxicity of TPZ under PDT-induced hypoxia.
Objective The purpose of this article was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis regarding the diagnostic test accuracy of chest CT for detecting coronavirus disease 2019 . Methods PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and CNKI were searched up to March 12, 2020. We included studies providing information regarding diagnostic test accuracy of chest CT for COVID-19 detection. The methodological quality was assessed using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies-2 tool. Sensitivity and specificity were pooled. Results Sixteen studies (n = 3186 patients) were included. The risks of bias in all studies were moderate in general. Pooled sensitivity was 92% (95% CI = 86-96%), and two studies reported specificity (25% [95% CI = 22-30%] and 33% [95% CI = 23-44%], respectively). There was substantial heterogeneity according to Cochran's Q test (p < 0.01) and Higgins I 2 heterogeneity index (96% for sensitivity). After dividing the studies into two groups based on the study site, we found that the sensitivity of chest CT was great in Wuhan (the most affected city by the epidemic) and the sensitivity values were very close to each other (97%, 96%, and 99%, respectively). In the regions other than Wuhan, the sensitivity varied from 61 to 98%. Conclusion Chest CT offers the great sensitivity for detecting COVID-19, especially in a region with severe epidemic situation. However, the specificity is low. In the context of emergency disease control, chest CT provides a fast, convenient, and effective method to early recognize suspicious cases and might contribute to confine epidemic.
Key Points• Chest CT has a high sensitivity for detecting COVID-19, especially in a region with severe epidemic, which is helpful to early recognize suspicious cases and might contribute to confine epidemic.
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