Cells and organisms must coordinate their metabolic activity with changes in their environment to ensure their growth only when conditions are favourable. In order to maintain cellular homoeostasis, a tight regulation between the synthesis and degradation of cellular components is essential. At the epicentre of the cellular nutrient sensing is the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) which connects environmental cues, including nutrient and growth factor availability as well as stress, to metabolic processes in order to preserve cellular homoeostasis. Under nutrient-rich conditions mTORC1 promotes cell growth by stimulating biosynthetic pathways, including synthesis of proteins, lipids and nucleotides, and by inhibiting cellular catabolism through repression of the autophagic pathway. Its close signalling interplay with the energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) dictates whether the cell actively favours anabolic or catabolic processes. Underlining the role of mTORC1 in the coordination of cellular metabolism, its deregulation is linked to numerous human diseases ranging from metabolic disorders to many cancers. Although mTORC1 can be modulated by a number of different inputs, amino acids represent primordial cues that cannot be compensated for by any other stimuli. The understanding of how amino acids signal to mTORC1 has increased considerably in the last years; however this area of research remains a hot topic in biomedical sciences. The current ideas and models proposed to explain the interrelationship between amino acid sensing, mTORC1 signalling and autophagy is the subject of the present review.
It is unclear how mTORC1 signaling differs in senescent and young cells. Carroll et al. show that senescence leads to constitutive mTORC1 activation and resistance to serum and amino acid starvation. This is associated with elevated autophagy, depolarization of cell plasma membrane, and primary cilia defects.
The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) coordinates cellular growth and metabolism with environmental inputs to ensure that cells grow only under favourable conditions. When active, mTORC1 stimulates biosynthetic pathways including protein, lipid and nucleotide synthesis and inhibits cellular catabolism through repression of the autophagic pathway, thereby promoting cell growth and proliferation. The recruitment of mTORC1 to the lysosomal surface has been shown to be essential for its activation. This finding has significantly enhanced our knowledge of mTORC1 regulation and has focused the attention of the field on the lysosome as a signalling hub which coordinates several homeostatic pathways. The intriguing localisation of mTORC1 to the cellular organelle that plays a crucial role in catabolism enables mTORC1 to feedback to autophagy and lysosomal biogenesis, thus leading mTORC1 to enact precise spatial and temporal control of cell growth. This review will cover the signalling interactions which take place on the surface of lysosomes and the cross-talk which exists between mTORC1 activity and lysosomal function.
Background: Adiponectin receptors (AdipoR1 and 2) mediate the effects of adiponectin, which possesses insulin sensitizing and anti-inflammatory properties. Results: AdipoRs organize into oligomers exhibiting distinct interaction and signaling properties. Conclusion:The cellular response to adiponectin depends on the specific AdipoR repertoire. Significance: To envisage novel therapeutic strategies, the capacity of AdipoRs to form oligomeric complexes must be taken into consideration.
Background: During the last two decades, over 100 proteomics studies have identified a variety of potential biomarkers in CSF of Alzheimer's (AD) patients. Although several reviews have proposed specific biomarkers, to date, the statistical relevance of these proteins has not been investigated and no peptidomic analyses have been generated on the basis of specific up-or down-regulation. Herein, we perform an analysis of all unbiased explorative proteomics studies of CSF biomarkers in AD to critically evaluate whether proteins and peptides identified in each study are consistent in distribution; direction change; and significance, which would strengthen their potential use in studies of AD pathology and progression. Methods: We generated a database containing all CSF proteins whose levels are known to be significantly altered in human AD from 47 independent, validated, proteomics studies. Using this database, which contains 2022 AD and 2562 control human samples, we examined whether each protein is consistently present on the basis of reliable statistical studies; and if so, whether it is over-or under-represented in AD. Additionally, we performed a direct analysis of available mass spectrometric data of these proteins to generate an AD CSF peptide database with 3221 peptides for further analysis. Results: Of the 162 proteins that were identified in 2 or more studies, we investigated their enrichment or depletion in AD CSF. This allowed us to identify 23 proteins which were increased and 50 proteins which were decreased in AD, some of which have never been revealed as consistent AD biomarkers (i.e. SPRC or MUC18). Regarding the analysis of the tryptic peptide database, we identified 87 peptides corresponding to 13 proteins as the most highly consistently altered peptides in AD. Analysis of tryptic peptide fingerprinting revealed specific peptides encoded by CH3L1, VGF, SCG2, PCSK1N, FBLN3 and APOC2 with the highest probability of detection in AD. Conclusions: Our study reveals a panel of 27 proteins and 21 peptides highly altered in AD with consistent statistical significance; this panel constitutes a potent tool for the classification and diagnosis of AD.
Adipose tissue dysregulation in obesity strongly influences systemic metabolic homeostasis and is often linked to insulin resistance (IR). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying adipose tissue dysfunction in obesity are not fully understood. Herein, a proteomic analysis of subcutaneous (SC) and omental (OM) fat from lean subjects and obese individuals with different degrees of insulin sensitivity was performed to identify adipose tissue biomarkers related to obesity‐associated metabolic disease. Our results suggest that dysregulation of both adipose tissue extracellular matrix (ECM) organization and intracellular trafficking processes may be associated with IR in obesity. Thus, abnormal accumulation of the small leucine‐rich proteoglycan, lumican, as observed in SC fat of IR obese individuals, modifies collagen I organization, impairs adipogenesis and activates stress processes [endoplasmic reticulum and oxidative stress] in adipocytes. In OM fat, IR is associated with increased levels of the negative regulator of the Rab family of small GTPases, GDI2, which alters lipid storage in adipocytes by inhibiting insulin‐stimulated binding of the Rab protein, Rab18, to lipid droplets. Together, these results indicate that lumican and GDI2 might play depot‐dependent, pathogenic roles in obesity‐associated IR. Our findings provide novel insights into the differential maladaptive responses of SC and OM adipose tissue linking obesity to IR.
Our findings support a role for SEPT11 in lipid traffic and metabolism in adipocytes and open new avenues for research on the control of lipid storage in obesity and insulin resistance.
TrkA-mediated NGF signaling in PC12 cells has been shown to be compartimentalized in specialized microdomains of the plasma membrane, the caveolae, which are organized by scaffold proteins including the member of the caveolin family of proteins, caveolin-1. Here, we characterize the intracellular distribution as well as the biochemical and functional properties of the neuroendocrine long coiled-coil protein 2 (NECC2), a novel long coiled-coil protein selectively expressed in neuroendocrine tissues that contains a predicted caveolin-binding domain and displays structural characteristics of a scaffolding factor. NECC2 distributes in caveolae, wherein it colocalizes with the TrkA receptor, and behaves as a caveolae-associated protein in neuroendocrine PC12 cells. In addition, stimulation of PC12 cells with nerve growth factor (NGF) increased the expression and regulated the distribution of NECC2. Interestingly, knockdown as well as overexpression of NECC2 resulted in a reduction of NGF-induced phosphorylation of the TrkA downstream effector extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/ERK2) but not of Akt. Altogether, our results identify NECC2 as a novel component of caveolae in PC12 cells and support the contribution of this protein in the maintenance of TrkA-mediated NGF signaling.
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