Cerebellar long-term depression (LTD) is a major form of synaptic plasticity that is thought to be critical for certain types of motor learning. Phosphorylation of the AMPA receptor subunit GluR2 on serine-880 as well as interaction of GluR2 with PICK1 have been suggested to contribute to the endocytic removal of postsynaptic AMPA receptors during LTD. Here, we show that targeted mutation of PICK1, the GluR2 C-terminal PDZ ligand, or the GluR2 PKC phosphorylation site eliminates cerebellar LTD in mice. LTD can be rescued in cerebellar cultures from mice lacking PICK1 by transfection of wild-type PICK1 but not by a PDZ mutant or a BAR domain mutant deficient in lipid binding, indicating the importance of these domains in PICK1 function. These results demonstrate that PICK1-GluR2 PDZ-based interactions and GluR2 phosphorylation are required for LTD expression in the cerebellum.
Synaptic activity-dependent gene expression is critical for certain forms of neuronal plasticity and survival in the mammalian nervous system, yet the mechanisms by which coordinated regulation of activity-induced genes supports neuronal function is unclear. Here, we show that deletion of serum response factor (SRF) in specific neuronal populations in adult mice results in profound deficits in activity-dependent immediate early gene expression, but components of upstream signaling pathways and cyclic AMP-response element binding protein (CREB)-dependent transactivation remain intact. Moreover, SRF-deficient CA1 pyramidal neurons show attenuation of long-term synaptic potentiation, a model for neuronal information storage. Furthermore, in contrast to the massive neurodegeneration seen in adult mice lacking CREB family members, SRF-deficient adult neurons show normal morphologies and basal excitatory synaptic transmission. These findings indicate that the transcriptional events underlying neuronal survival and plasticity are dissociable and that SRF plays a prominent role in use-dependent modification of synaptic strength in the adult brain.
mTor kinase is involved in cell growth, proliferation, and differentiation. The roles of mTor activators, Rheb1 and Rheb2, have not been established in vivo. Here, we report that Rheb1, but not Rheb2, is critical for embryonic survival and mTORC1 signaling. Embryonic deletion of Rheb1 in neural progenitor cells abolishes mTORC1 signaling in developing brain and increases mTORC2 signaling. Remarkably, embryonic and early postnatal brain development appears grossly normal in these Rheb1f/f, Nes-cre mice with the notable exception of deficits of myelination. Conditional expression of Rheb1 transgene in neural progenitors increases mTORC1 activity and promotes myelination in the brain. In addition, the Rheb1 transgene rescues mTORC1 signaling and hypomyelination in the Rheb1f/f, Nes-cre mice. Our study demonstrates that Rheb1 is essential for mTORC1 signaling and myelination in the brain, and suggests that mTORC1 signaling plays a role in selective cellular adaptations, rather than general cellular viability.
In Drosophila, olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) rely primarily on two types of chemoreceptors, odorant receptors (Ors) and ionotropic receptors (Irs), to convert odor stimuli into neural activity. The cellular signaling of these receptors in their native OSNs remains unclear because of the difficulty of obtaining intracellular recordings from Drosophila OSNs. Here, we developed an antennal preparation that enabled the first recordings (to our knowledge) from targeted Drosophila OSNs through a patch-clamp technique. We found that brief odor pulses triggered graded inward receptor currents with distinct response kinetics and current-voltage relationships between Or-and Ir-driven responses. When stimulated with long-step odors, the receptor current of Ir-expressing OSNs did not adapt. In contrast, Or-expressing OSNs showed a strong Ca 2+ -dependent adaptation. The adaptation-induced changes in odor sensitivity obeyed the Weber-Fechner relation; however, surprisingly, the incremental sensitivity was reduced at low odor backgrounds but increased at high odor backgrounds. Our model for odor adaptation revealed two opposing effects of adaptation, desensitization and prevention of saturation, in dynamically adjusting odor sensitivity and extending the sensory operating range.Drosophila | olfaction | chemoreceptor | sensory adaptation | OSN
Interneurons play a key role in cortical function and dysfunction, yet organization of cortical interneuronal circuitry remains poorly understood. Cortical Layer 1 (L1) contains 2 general GABAergic interneuron groups, namely single bouquet cells (SBCs) and elongated neurogliaform cells (ENGCs). SBCs predominantly make unidirectional inhibitory connections (SBC→) with L2/3 interneurons, whereas ENGCs frequently form reciprocal inhibitory and electric connections (ENGC↔) with L2/3 interneurons. Here, we describe a systematic investigation of the pyramidal neuron targets of L1 neuron-led interneuronal circuits in the rat barrel cortex with simultaneous octuple whole-cell recordings and report a simple organizational scheme of the interneuronal circuits. Both SBCs→ and ENGC ↔ L2/3 interneuronal circuits connect to L2/3 and L5, but not L6, pyramidal neurons. SBC → L2/3 interneuronal circuits primarily inhibit the entire dendritic-somato-axonal axis of a few L2/3 and L5 pyramidal neurons located within the same column. In contrast, ENGC ↔ L2/3 interneuronal circuits generally inhibit the distal apical dendrite of many L2/3 and L5 pyramidal neurons across multiple columns. Finally, L1 interneuron-led circuits target distinct subcellular compartments of L2/3 and L5 pyramidal neurons in a L2/3 interneuron type-dependent manner. These results suggest that L1 neurons form canonical interneuronal circuits to control information processes in both supra- and infragranular cortical layers.
Background:The role of JIP3 in axon specification and elongation in addition to axon branching remains unknown. Results: JIP3 locally activates the JNK-cofilin pathway at axon tips and thus enhances axon elongation. Conclusion: JIP3 is essential for axon elongation. Significance: These results advance our understanding of the role of JIP3 in axon development.
Deciphering neuronal circuitry is central to understanding brain function and dysfunction, yet it remains a daunting task. To facilitate the dissection of neuronal circuits, a process requiring functional analysis of synaptic connections and morphological identification of interconnected neurons, we present here a method for stable simultaneous octuple patch-clamp recordings. This method allows physiological analysis of synaptic interconnections among 4–8 simultaneously recorded neurons and/or 10–30 sequentially recorded neurons, and it allows anatomical identification of >85% of recorded interneurons and >99% of recorded principal neurons. We describe how to apply the method to rodent tissue slices; however, it can be used on other model organisms. We also describe the latest refinements and optimizations of mechanics, electronics, optics and software programs that are central to the realization of a combined single- and two-photon microscopy–based, optogenetics- and imaging-assisted, stable, simultaneous quadruple–viguple patch-clamp recording system. Setting up the system, from the beginning of instrument assembly and software installation to full operation, can be completed in 3–4 d.
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