1,3-Propanediol (1,3-PD) was produced by Klebsiella pneumoniae using crude glycerol obtained from biodiesel production. The 1,3-PD concentration of 51.3 g/l(-1) on crude glycerol from alkali-catalyzed methanolysis of soybean oil was comparable to that of 53 g/l(-1) on crude glycerol derived from a lipase-catalyzed process. The productivities of 1.7 g l(-1) h(-1) on crude glycerol were comparable to that of 2 g l(-1) h(-1) on pure glycerol. It could be concluded that the crude glycerol could be directly converted to 1,3-PD without any prior purification.
1,3-Propanediol (1,3-PD) can be produced from glycerol by Klebsiella pneumoniae under micro-aerobic conditions. Recently, this fed-batch fermentation process has been successfully scaled up to 1 m(3). The final 1,3-PD concentration, molar yield and volumetric productivity of 72 g l(-1), 57% and 2.1 g l(-1 )h(-1), respectively, are close to those of 75 g l(-1), 61%, and 2.2 g l(-1 )h(-1) under anaerobic conditions. This process would be suitable for the production of 1,3-PD on a large scale.
Crude glycerol is an ideal feedstock for bioproduction of 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO) while pure culture always shows low substrate tolerance and limited productivity. In this study, an anaerobic microbial consortium for conversion of crude glycerol was selected and its 1,3-PDO production capacity was evaluated. The consortium was obtained from anaerobic activated sludge by 19 serial transfers and mainly consisted of 94.64% Clostridiaceae and 4.47% Peptostreptococcaceae. The consortium adapted well with high glycerol concentration of 120 g/L as well as wide substrate concentration fluctuation from 15 to 80 g/L, producing 60.61 and 82.66 g/L 1,3-PDO in the batch and fed-batch fermentation, with the productivity of 3.79 and 3.06 g/(L∙h), respectively, which are among the best results published so far. Furthermore, mini consortia isolated by serial dilution exhibited similar microbial composition but gradually decreasing tolerance to crude glycerol. Four randomly selected Clostridium butyricum displayed different substrate tolerance and insufficient 1,3-PDO production capacity. This work demonstrated that the high adaptation to crude glycerol of the consortium was the collaborative effort of different individuals.
BackgroundButanol is not only an important solvent and chemical intermediate in food and pharmaceutical industries, but also considered as an advanced biofuel. Recently, there have been resurging interests in producing biobutanol especially using low-cost lignocellulosic biomass, but the process still suffers from low titer and productivity. The challenge for the bioconversion approach is to find an effective way of degrading materials into simple sugars that can then be converted into fuels by microorganisms. The pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is the great important process in influencing butanol production and recovery, finally determining its eco-feasibility in commercialization.ResultsThe effects of various strengths of citrate buffer on enzymatic hydrolysis and acetone–butanol–ethanol fermentation using corn stover or glucose as feedstock were investigated. The strengths of citrate buffer in the range of 20–100 mM had no effect on enzymatic hydrolysis, but greatly influenced the performance of ABE fermentation using corn stover hydrolysate. When 30 mM citrate buffer was used for enzymatic hydrolysis, the fermentation broth with the maximum butanol and ABE concentrations of 11.2 and 19.8 g/L were obtained from 30.9 g/L glucose and 9.7 g/L xylose, respectively, which was concentrated to 100.4 g/L butanol and 153.5 g/L ABE by vapor stripping–vapor permeation process. Furthermore, using glucose as sole carbon source, there were no cell growth and ABE production in the P2 medium with 80 or 100 mM citrate buffer, indicating that higher concentrations of citrate buffer had deleterious effect on cell growth and metabolism due to the variation of cells internal pH and cell membrane permeability. To mimic in situ product recovery for ABE fermentation, the VSVP process produced the condensate containing 212.0–232.0 g/L butanol (306.6–356.1 g/L ABE) from fermentation broth containing ~10 g/L butanol (~17 g/L ABE), the performance of which was more effective than pervaporation and gas stripping.ConclusionsAs it has significant impact on butanol fermentation, the strength of citrate buffer is of great importance in lignocellulosic butanol fermentation. Compared with pervaporation and gas stripping, the VSVP process has great potential for efficient butanol recovery in biobutanol production.
1,3-Propanediol (1,3-PD) is a versatile bulk chemical and widely used as a monomer to synthesis polymers, such as polyesters, polyethers and polyurethanes. 1,3-PD can be produced by microbial fermentation with the advantages of the environmental protection and sustainable development. Low substrate tolerance and wide by-product profile limit microbial production of 1,3-PD by Klebsiella pneumonia on industrial scale. In this study, microbial consortia were investigated to overcome some disadvantages of pure fermentation by single strain. Microbial consortium named DL38 from marine sludge gave the best performance. Its bacterial community composition was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon high-throughput sequencing and showed that Enterobacteriaceae was the most abundant family. Compared with three K. pneumonia strains isolated from DL38, the microbial consortium could grow well at an initial glycerol concentration of 200 g/L to produce 81.40 g/L of 1,3-PD with a yield of 0.63 mol/mol. This initial glycerol concentration is twice the highest concentration by single isolated strain and more than the critical value (188 g/L) extrapolated from the fermentation kinetics for K. pneumonia. On the other hand, a small amount of by-products were produced in batch fermentation of microbial consortium DL38, especially no 2,3-butanediol detected. The mixed culture of strain W3, Y5 and Y1 improved the tolerance to glycerol and changed the metabolite profile of single strain W3. The batch fermentation with the natural proportion (W3: Y5: Y1 = 208: 82: 17) was superior to that with other proportions and single strain. This study showed that microbial consortium DL38 possessed excellent substrate tolerance, narrow by-product profile and attractive potential for industrial production of 1,3-PD.
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