Article Extended Data Fig. 7 | Analysis of 2019-nCoV receptor usage. Determination of virus infectivity in HeLa cells with or without the expression of human APN and DPP4. The expression of ACE2, APN and DPP4 plasmids with S tag were detected using mouse anti-S tag monoclonal antibody. ACE2, APN and DPP4 proteins (green), viral protein (red) and nuclei (blue) are shown. Scale bars, 10 μm.
Since the SARS outbreak 18 years ago, a large number of severe acute respiratory syndrome related coronaviruses (SARSr-CoV) have been discovered in their natural reservoir host, bats1-4. Previous studies indicated that some of those bat SARSr-CoVs have the potential to infect humans5-7. Here we report the identification and characterization of a novel coronavirus (nCoV-2019) which caused an epidemic of acute respiratory syndrome in humans, in Wuhan, China. The epidemic, started from December 12th, 2019, has caused 198 laboratory confirmed infections with three fatal cases by January 20th, 2020. Full-length genome sequences were obtained from five patients at the early stage of the outbreak. They are almost identical to each other and share 79.5% sequence identify to SARS-CoV. Furthermore, it was found that nCoV-2019 is 96% identical at the whole genome level to a bat coronavirus. The pairwise protein sequence analysis of seven conserved non-structural proteins show that this virus belongs to the species of SARSr-CoV. The nCoV-2019 virus was then isolated from the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of a critically ill patient, which can be neutralized by sera from several patients. Importantly, we have confirmed that this novel CoV uses the same cell entry receptor, ACE2, as SARS-CoV.
Atmospheric inputs of iron to the open ocean are hypothesized to modulate ocean biogeochemistry. This review presents an integration of available observations of atmospheric iron and iron deposition, and also covers bioavailable iron distributions. Methods for estimating temporal variability in ocean deposition over the recent past are reviewed. Desert dust iron is estimated to represent 95% of the global atmospheric iron cycle, and combustion sources of iron are responsible for the remaining 5%. Humans may be significantly perturbing desert dust (up to 50%). The sources of bioavailable iron are less well understood than those of iron, partly because we do not know what speciation of the iron is bioavailable. Bioavailable iron can derive from atmospheric processing of relatively insoluble desert dust iron or from direct emissions of soluble iron from combustion sources. These results imply that humans could be substantially impacting iron and bioavailable iron deposition to ocean regions, but there are large uncertainties in our understanding.
Oligodendrocyte development is regulated by the interplay of repressors and activators in a complex transcriptional network. Here we report that two histone-modifying enzymes, HDAC1 and HDAC2, are required for oligodendrocyte formation. Genetic deletion of both HDAC1 and HDAC2 in oligodendrocyte lineage cells resulted in stabilization and nuclear translocation of β-catenin, which negatively regulates oligodendrocyte development by repressing Olig2 expression. We further identified an oligodendrocyte-restricted transcription factor TCF7L2/TCF4 as a bipartite co-effector of β-catenin for regulating oligodendrocyte differentiation. Targeted disruption of TCF7L2 in mice leads to severe defects in oligodendrocyte maturation, while expression of its dominant repressive form promotes precocious oligodendrocyte specification in developing chick neural tube. Transcriptional co-repressors HDAC1 and HDAC2 compete with β-catenin for TCF7L2 interaction to regulate downstream genes involved in oligodendrocyte differentiation. Hence, crosstalk between HDAC1/2 and the canonical Wnt signaling pathway mediated by TCF7L2 serves as a regulatory mechanism for oligodendrocyte differentiation.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate various biological processes, but evidence for miRNAs that control the differentiation program of specific neural cell types has been elusive. To determine the role of miRNAs in the formation of myelinating oligodendrocytes, we selectively deleted a miRNA-processing enzyme Dicer1 in oligodendrocyte lineage cells. Mice lacking Dicer1 display severe myelinating deficits despite an expansion of oligodendrocyte progenitor pool. To search for miRNAs responsible for the induction of oligodendrocyte maturation, we identified miR-219 and miR-338 as oligodendrocyte-specific miRNAs in spinal cord. Overexpression of these miRNAs is sufficient to promote oligodendrocyte differentiation. Additionally, blockage of these miRNA activities in oligodendrocyte precursor culture and knockdown of miR-219 in zebrafish inhibit oligodendrocyte maturation. miR-219 and miR-338 function in part by directly repressing negative regulators of oligodendrocyte differentiation, including transcription factors Sox6 and Hes5. These findings illustrate that miRNAs are important regulators of oligodendrocyte differentiation, providing new targets for myelin repair.
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