Over 50 years of research on cognitive style has converged on the importance of individual differences in use of intuition and analysis. This program of research is characterized, however, by two incompatible perspectives about the relation between intuition and analysis. The distinction concerns whether intuition and analysis are opposite poles of a single dimension or whether they are orthogonal constructs. Two studies report meta‐analytic investigations of the relation between intuition and analysis. A meta‐analysis of the existing research base (k = 80; n = 27 501) showed that intuition and analysis are uncorrelated. A second meta‐analysis of combinations of subscales from different cognitive style measures (n = 511) supported the results of the first meta‐analysis. Confirmatory factor analysis also supported the existence of two uncorrelated constructs. Overall, the findings support the view that intuition and analysis are independent constructs, rather than opposite ends of a bipolar continuum. In addition, the findings suggest measures of analysis or rationality are not interchangeable. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
How is language processed in the brain by native speakers of different languages? Is there one brain system for all languages or are different languages subserved by different brain systems? The first view emphasizes commonality, whereas the second emphasizes specificity. We investigated the cortical dynamics involved in processing two very diverse languages: a tonal language (Chinese) and a nontonal language (English). We used functional MRI and dynamic causal modeling analysis to compute and compare brain network models exhaustively with all possible connections among nodes of language regions in temporal and frontal cortex and found that the information flow from the posterior to anterior portions of the temporal cortex was commonly shared by Chinese and English speakers during speech comprehension, whereas the inferior frontal gyrus received neural signals from the left posterior portion of the temporal cortex in English speakers and from the bilateral anterior portion of the temporal cortex in Chinese speakers. Our results revealed that, although speech processing is largely carried out in the common left hemisphere classical language areas (Broca's and Wernicke's areas) and anterior temporal cortex, speech comprehension across different language groups depends on how these brain regions interact with each other. Moreover, the right anterior temporal cortex, which is crucial for tone processing, is equally important as its left homolog, the left anterior temporal cortex, in modulating the cortical dynamics in tone language comprehension. The current study pinpoints the importance of the bilateral anterior temporal cortex in language comprehension that is downplayed or even ignored by popular contemporary models of speech comprehension.speech perception | tonal language | functional MRI | cortical dynamics T he brain of a newborn discriminates the various phonemic contrasts used in different languages (1) by recruiting distributed cortical regions (2); by 6-10 mo, it is preferentially tuned to the phonemes in native speech that they have been exposed to (3, 4). In adult humans, the key neural nodes that subserve speech comprehension are located in the superior temporal cortex (5, 6) and the inferior frontal cortex (7). Do these regions interact in different ways depending on the type of language that is being processed? Little is known about how information flows among these critical language nodes in native speakers of different languages.As one of the unique capacities of the human brain (8), the nature of compositional languages and their neural mechanisms have been the interests of scientific research for decades. There are more than 7,000 different spoken languages in the world today used for communication. By exploring the brain networks subserving universal properties across languages and specific differences within different languages, such research helps address the essential questions in neurolinguistics such as the constitution of knowledge of language, as well as how it is acquired (9). Although ...
Altered striatocortical functional connectivity has been suggested to be a trait marker of schizophrenia spectrum disorders, including schizotypal personality. In the present study, we examined the association between schizotypal personality traits and striatocortical functional connectivity in a sample of healthy adults. The German version of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire was obtained from N 5 111 participants recruited from the general public. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired at 3T. Six striatal seed regions in each hemisphere were defined and striatocortical resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) as well as its lateralization indices was calculated. Regression analysis showed that schizotypy scores, especially from the positive dimension, were positively correlated with rsFC between ventral striatum and frontal cortex and negatively associated with rsFC between dorsal striatum and posterior cingulate. No significant associations were found between negative dimension schizotypy and striatocortical rsFC. We also found positive correlations between schizotypy total scores and lateralization index of right dorsal caudate and right rostral putamen. In conclusion, the present study extends previous evidence of altered striatocortical rsFC in the schizophrenia spectrum. The observed associations resemble in part the alterations observed in psychotic patients and their relatives, providing support for dimensionality Additional Supporting Information may be found in the online version of this article.
SummaryContext: The diagnosis of congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH) in prepuberty has always been challenging. Here, we aimed at studying the clinical and genetic features of paediatric CHH, especially the phenotype of hypospadias and dual defects (patients showing hypothalamic and/or pituitary defects and testicular hypoplasia), so as to have a better understanding of CHH. Design:The clinical and genetic features of patients with CHH were analysed, and the relationships between hypospadias, dual defects and genetics were investigated. Patients:Patients who visited Beijing Children's Hospital and were positively diagnosed with CHH. Measurements:The collected data included sex hormones, MRI of the olfactory bulb, human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) test and genetic testing. We analysed clinical features and genetic results, especially hypospadias and dual defects, and compared the stimulated testosterone (T) levels in patients with and without cryptorchidism.Results: Sixty-four patients were positively diagnosed, and forty-seven (73.4%) had Kallmann syndrome (KS). Four patients (6.3%) had hypospadias, including 2 KS.Micropenis combined with cryptorchidism was the most common phenotype (39%).Approximately two-third of patients showed a poor response to hCG; 15 cases were diagnosed with dual defects, and there were no significant differences between those with and without cryptorchidism. Twenty-six cases (51%) of 51 patients were identified as having classical HH mutations, affecting 10 different genes, with oligogenic mutations in 5 cases (9.8%). The most common mutations were in PROKR2 (17.6%), FGFR1 (13.7%) and CHD7 (7.8%). The frequency of PROKR2 mutations was higher in dual HH when compared to other HH cases (6/15 vs 3/36, P = .021). Conclusions:Micropenis and/or cryptorchidism can serve as important signs for the diagnosis of HH in paediatrics, and the coexistence of hypospadias does not exclude the diagnosis of CHH, including KS or normosmic isolated HH (nHH). Testicular function may be impaired earlier than expected, and PROKR2 mutations need to be evaluated to identify presumed dual defects. K E Y W O R D Scongenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, dual HH, gene, hypospadias This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes.
This study examines whether students perceive three different types of fit in an academic environment (i.e., interest–major [I–M] fit, demands–abilities [D–A] fit, and needs–supplies [N–S] fit) and whether these factors predict important academic and well-being criteria using a Chinese student sample. Results from confirmatory factor analyses support the assumption that students differentiate among the three fit perceptions. Incremental validity analysis and relative importance analysis reveal that the three types of fit each have a unique relationship with situational outcomes. Specifically, I–M fit predicts greater proportions of variance in major change intention; D–A fit predicts greater proportions of variance in academic performance; and N–S fit predicts greater proportions of variance in well-being (e.g., academic satisfaction and depression). Practical and theoretical implications of these results are discussed.
The Questionnaire of Cognitive and Affective Empathy (QCAE) is a commonly used instrument in empathy research. However, this scale has not been validated in the Chinese context. We examined the psychometric properties and structure of the QCAE in a Chinese sample consisting of 1224 college students. The whole sample was split into two halves for exploratory factor analysis (EFA; n = 617) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA; n = 607). A subsample (n = 351) completed the Chinese versions of the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI) to examine convergent validity and the Revised Social Anhedonia Scale (RSAS) to examine the discriminate validity. Finally, 79 participants of the above subsample were retested after a 4‐week interval. Results from EFA and CFA suggested a five‐factor model, namely Perspective Taking, Online Simulation, Emotional Contagion, Proximal Responsivity, and Peripheral Responsivity. The internal consistency was .86 and test–retest reliability was .76. Scores on the QCAE positively correlated with scores on the IRI and negatively correlated with scores on the RSAS. The Chinese version of the QCAE exhibited good factor structure, reliability, and validity. Specific relationships between empathy and social anhedonia were also demonstrated.
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