Our cell-based assay is useful for anti-cN1A autoantibodies detection. Patients with anti-cN1A autoantibodies demonstrated unique clinicopathological features. In vitro and in vivo passive immunization model results suggest that anti-cN1A autoantibodies may affect protein degradation in myofibers. Ann Neurol 2017;81:512-525.
Muscle satellite cells are essential for muscle regeneration. However, efficient regeneration does not occur without muscle-resident mesenchymal progenitor cells. We show here that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (Bm-MSCs) also facilitate muscle regeneration in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) model mice. Bm-MSCs transplanted into peritoneal cavities of DMD model mice with severe muscle degeneration strongly suppressed dystrophic pathology and improved death-related symptoms, which resulted in dramatic lifespan extension. Isolated single myofibers from Bm-MSC-transplanted mice manifested considerably less myofiber splitting compared with myofibers from non-transplanted mice, which indicated that transplantation significantly ameliorated abnormal regeneration. With regard to the number of satellite cells, several cells remained on myofibers from Bm-MSC-transplanted model mice, but satellite cells rarely occurred on myofibers from non-transplanted mice. Also, CXCL12 was crucial for muscle regeneration. CXCL12 facilitated muscle regeneration and paired box protein–7 (PAX7) expression after cardiotoxin-related muscle injury in vivo. The majority of primary muscle satellite cells sorted by integrin-α7 and CD34 expressed CXCR4, a receptor specific for CXCL12. CXCL12 strongly suppressed p-STAT3 expression in these sorted cells in vitro. CXCL12 may therefore influence muscle regeneration through STAT3 signaling in satellite cells. Targeting these proteins in or on muscle satellite cells may improve many degenerative muscle diseases.
Background and purposeOxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Edaravone, a free radical scavenger, was approved as a therapeutic drug for ALS in 2015 in Japan. A phase 3 clinical trial demonstrated a smaller decline in ALS functional scale scores compared with placebo. However, the long-term effects of edaravone on ALS patients remain unclear. This study aimed to retrospectively investigate the long-term effects of edaravone on the survival of ALS patients.MethodsWe retrospectively analyzed 27 consecutive patients with ALS who were treated with edaravone and 30 consecutive ALS patients who were not treated with edaravone between 2010 and 2016.ResultsThe differences of ALSFRS-R scores from baseline to 6 months was significantly reduced in the edaravone group, compared to the control group. The changes in serum creatinine, as a possible marker of ALS severity, from baseline to 6 and 12 months were significantly improved in the edaravone group, compared to the control group. The survival rate was significantly improved in the edaravone group compared with control patients.ConclusionOur retrospective single-center analysis suggests slower progression and better prognosis of ALS patients with edaravone treatment. Further investigation, including prospective multicenter analysis, is warranted to confirm the usefulness of edaravone for a better prognosis of ALS.
A 56-year-old man noticed discomfort in his left lower limb, followed by convulsion and numbness in the same area. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed white matter lesions in the right parietal lobe accompanied by leptomeningeal or leptomeningeal and cortical post-contrast enhancement along the parietal sulci. The patient also exhibited higher brain dysfunction corresponding with the lesions on MRI. Histological pathology disclosed β-amyloid in the blood vessels and perivascular inflammation, which highlights the diagnosis of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA)-related inflammation. Pulse steroid therapy was so effective that clinical and radiological findings immediately improved.CAA-related inflammation is a rare disease, defined by the deposition of amyloid proteins within the leptomeningeal and cortical arteries associated with vasculitis or perivasculitis. Here we report a patient with CAA-related inflammation who showed higher brain dysfunction that improved with steroid therapy. In cases with atypical radiological lesions like our case, cerebral biopsy with histological confirmation remains necessary for an accurate diagnosis.
Autosomal dominant oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) is a late-onset disorder characterized clinically by progressive ptosis, dysphagia and limb weakness, and by unique intranuclear inclusions in the skeletal muscle fibers. The disease is caused by the expansion of a 10-alanine stretch to 12-17 alanine residues in the poly(A)-binding protein, nuclear 1 (PABPN1; PABP2). While PABPN1 is a major component of the inclusions in OPMD, the exact cause of the disease is unknown. To elucidate the molecular mechanism and to construct a useful model for therapeutic trials, we have generated transgenic mice expressing the hPABPN1. Transgenic mice lines expressing a normal hPABPN1 with 10-alanine stretch did not reveal myopathic changes, whereas lines expressing high levels of expanded hPABPN1 with a 13-alanine stretch showed an apparent myopathy phenotype, especially in old age. Pathological studies in the latter mice disclosed intranuclear inclusions consisting of aggregated mutant hPABPN1 product. Furthermore, some TUNEL positive nuclei were shown around degenerating fibers and a cluster of it in the lesion in necrotic muscle fibers. Interestingly, the degree of myopathic changes was more prominent in the eyelid and pharyngeal muscles. Further, muscle weakness in the limbs was apparent as shown by the fatigability test. Nuclear inclusions seemed to develop gradually with aging, at least after 1 week of age, in model mouse muscles. We established the first transgenic mouse model of OPMD by expressing mutated PABPN1, and our model mice appear to have more dramatic alternations in myofiber viability.
Mutations in Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) gene cause familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), which could be attributed to the toxic properties of the misfolded protein, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction. DJ-1 -a causative agent of familial Parkinson's disease PARK7 -is responsible for inducing antioxidative reaction. In this study, we showed the up-regulation of DJ-1 protein levels in mutant SOD1 transgenic mice through the lifespan were observed in the motor neurons. We demonstrated biochemically DJ-1 formed complexes with mutant SOD1 in the cell lysates. Furthermore, DJ-1 over-expression resulted in increased cell viability and reduced cell toxicity in mutant SOD1-transfected neuronal cells, because of improvement in apoptotic pathway and reduction in oxidative stress levels. We also evaluated DJ-1 levels in CSF collected from sporadic ALS patients and controls subjects. The CSF DJ-1 levels were significantly higher in patients with sporadic ALS than in control subjects. These results show that DJ-1 may be associated with sporadic and familial ALS pathogenesis. Therefore, insight into the effects of DJ-1 on mutant SOD1-mediated toxicity may provide a therapeutic advance for the treatment of motor neuron degeneration in ALS. Keywords: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, antiapoptotic pathway, CSF, Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, DJ-1, oxidative stress. Therefore, we hypothesized that DJ-1 could be expressed and play a protective role against cell stress, including oxidative stress in motor neurons in mice, and that DJ-1 might also protect motor neurons from the toxicity related to mutant SOD1. Lev et al. (2008) reported that up-regulation of DJ-1 mRNA and protein levels in the brains and spinal cords of FALS mice although they did not mention the location of up-regulation of DJ-1. In the present study, we showed that the up-regulation of DJ-1 protein levels in mutant SOD1 transgenic mice through the lifespan were observed in the motor neurons. Next, using biochemical methods, we demonstrated that DJ-1 formed complexes with mutant SOD1 in the cell lysates. Furthermore, we showed that DJ-1 over-expression resulted in increased cell viability and reduced cell toxicity in a mutant SOD1-transfected neuronal cell line because of the improved apoptotic pathway and reduction of oxidative stress. ELISA revealed that CSF DJ-1 levels were significantly higher in patients with SALS than in control subjects. Materials and methods AnimalsTransgenic mice carrying a high copy number of a mutant allele human SOD1 (G93A) gene (B6SJL-TgN [SOD1-G93A]1Gur) (Gurney et al. 1994) and their wild-type non-transgenic (NTG) littermates (B6SJL) were purchased from the Jackson Laboratory (Bar Harbor, ME, USA). Genotype analysis of the SOD1 mutation was performed by PCR with a set of primers, as described by Rosen et al. (1993) All animal research was approved by the Kumamoto University Committee on Animal Research. Construction of the expression vectorsThe cDNAs of hSOD1G93A , and hSOD1 G85R were amplified by PCR us...
These findings suggest that OPTN in cooperation with TDP-43 might be involved in the pathophysiological mechanisms of skeletal muscular degeneration in myopathy with rimmed vacuoles. Further investigation into these mechanisms is therefore warranted.
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