Nasal colonization with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have increasingly been reported in healthy communities. This study aimed to assess the rate of S. aureus in general and MRSA in particular from nasal secretion of children in daycare centers in Vitória da Conquista, Brazil. The isolates were identified based on morphology, biochemical tests and by PCR. Detection of virulence genes, biofilm production, and susceptibility test by disk diffusion agar were performed. MRSA isolates were characterized by spa, SCCmec, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). S. aureus were recovered from 70 (47.3%) of 148 children. Among the 11 MRSA strains (15.7%), two SCCmec types (IV and V) were detected. MLST identified four STs related to three clonal complexes (CC): 5, 45, and 398. Four spa types were found circulating in this setting. Resistance of S. aureus isolates to ampicillin, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, and tetracycline was 80%, 32.8%, 7.1%, 7.1% and 4.3%, respectively. One isolate presented intermediate resistance to vancomycin detected by Etest methodology. All strains were biofilm producers. The virulence genes seb, sec, spa, and pvl were detected in some isolates. This study revealed a high rate of children carrying MRSA among healthy attendees in daycare centers in Vitória da Conquista, Brazil.
Human milk is the best nutrient for infants. The donor human milk is stored in a milk bank before pasteurization. However, the human milk is not sterile and could be colonized with different types of bacteria. Many studies have shown S. aureus to be the most prevalent potential pathogen detected in human milk. This study characterized 22 methicillin-resistant and methicillinsensitive Staphylococcus aureus isolates from raw human milk for the presence of virulence genes and agr type. Moreover, the genotypic as identified characterization was realized. The presence of virulence genes sei, seg, sec, seh, and etb was identified in resistant and sensitive strains. We observed the predominance of agr type II. The presence of SCCmec IV (67%, 4/6) and V (33%, 2/6) characterized resistant strains as CA-MRSA. Endemic lineages detected (ST1635/CC5-t002, ST5/CC5-t002, ST72/CC5-t126, ST1/CC1-t127, ST45/CC45-t065, and ST398/t1451) could be related to epidemic clones, such as USA800/ ST5, USA700/ST72, USA400/ST1, USA600/ST45, and ST398. This study made it possible to understand the characteristics of virulence and clonality of some strains that circulate in breast milk in our region. The discovery of human milk colonization by MSSA and MRSA strains with molecular characteristics similar to infectious clones spread globally demonstrates the importance of monitoring strains that can spread and cause serious infections.
is a human pathogen of clinical importance related to a variety of infections.
The objective of this study was to analyze the molecular and epidemiological characteristics of
obtained from healthcare professionals (HCP) of a hospital in southwestern Bahia, Brazil.
Samples were collected from hands, nasal cavity, and laboratory coats of 80 HCP. The bacterial isolates recovered from 240 samples were identified as
and then analyzed for their antimicrobial resistance profile, genotypic characterization, and pathogenicity.
178 isolates were identified as
, being mostly isolated from the nasal cavity. Thirty isolates (16.8%) were characterized as MRSA. The virulence gene frequency varied according to isolate source. All virulence genes were identified in at least one hand isolate. Isolates from laboratory coats did not show
Isolates from the nasal cavity did not exhibit
type I was identified in 56.7% of MRSA isolates. Among MRSA isolates, 14 PFGE pulsotypes were characterized, with profile A being predominant (nine isolates). Clonal complexes CC5, CC45, and CC398 were found. MRSA isolates induced cytokine gene expression in macrophages, with IL-10 and IL-17 being expressed more often.
We found a high colonization rate for
among HCP. Moreover, we observed that MRSA strains presented different virulence factors and could induce cytokine gene expression, indicating an urgent need to control colonization rates of HCP by MRSA isolates in order to protect hospital patients and the general public.
Background: Ureaplasma diversum is a pathogen found in the genital tract of cattle and associated with genital disorders such as infertility, placentitis, abortion, birth of weak calves, low sperm motility, seminal vesiculitis and epididymitis. There are few studies evaluating the genetic diversity of U. diversum strains and their influence on the immune response in cattle. Therefore, to better understand genetic relationships of the pathogenicity of U. diversum, a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme was performed to characterize the ATCC 49782 strain and another 40 isolates recovered from different Brazilian states. Results: Primers were designed for housekeeping genes ftsH, polC, rpL22, rpoB, valS and ureA and for virulence genes, phospholipase D (pld), triacylglycerol lipase (tgl), hemolysin (hlyA), MIB-MIP system (mib,mip), MBA (mba), VsA (VsA) and ribose transporter (tABC). PCRs were performed and the targeted gene products were purified and sequenced. Sequence types (STs), and clonal complexes (CCs) were assigned and the phylogenetic relationship was also evaluated. Thus, a total of 19 STs and 4 CCs were studied. Following the molecular analysis, six isolates of U. diversum were selected, inoculated into bovine monocyte/macrophage culture and evaluated for gene expression of the cytokines TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-17. Differences were detected in the induction of cytokines, especially between isolates 198 and BA78, promoted inflammatory and anti-inflammatory profiles, respectively, and they also differed in virulence factors. Conclusion: It was observed that intra-species variability between isolates of U. diversum can induce variations of virulent determinants and, consequently, modulate the expression of the triggered immune response.
Significance and impact of the study: Our data suggest that Lactobacillus plantarum Lp62 could be used as a potential treatment against genital infections, especially bacterial vaginosis caused by Gardnerella vaginalis. We hypothesize that this strain has significant therapeutic potential as it topically helps restore vaginal microbiota.
Purpose: This study therefore sought to analyse the interrelationship between the phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and MRSA strains isolated from healthcare workers in north-eastern Brazil.Patients and methods: Staphylococcus aureus strains were isolated from nasal mucosa of nursing professionals. They are identified by biochemical analysis and the sensibility drug test were carried out by agar diffusion method. Biofilm formation was detected on the polystyrene plastic surface. Molecular characterization was conducted by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The Chi-squared or Fisher's exact tests were applied for the analysis of associations between phenotypic and genotypic characteristics.Results: A total of 118 workers were involved, 49.15% of whom presented S. aureus. The most frequently observed strain was resistance to penicillin (86.21%), while the inducible clindamycin resistance (iMLSB) phenotype was detected in 48.84% of isolates. MRSA was found in 41.37% of isolates, while SCCmec type I was seen in 75%. A strain with intermediate resistance to vancomycin was also found. In terms of virulence genes, eta, tst, pvl, spa, clfA, icaA, icaC and icaD genes were detected at least once. Biofilm formation was detected in 89.65% of the strains - 18.97% of these were classified as strongly adherent. No associations with ica genes were detected. Multivariate analyses of clusters demonstrated variability between the strains, with the notable formation of three main clusters, according to phenotypic and genotypic characteristics.Conclusion: High prevalence, multidrug resistance and presence of MRSA strains were all observed. Most isolates had significant virulence genes and the ability to form biofilms, increasing the severity of potential infections. It is therefore necessary to monitor the strains circulating in this hospital and to intensify precautionary measures in order to prevent their spread.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.