The early survival advantage in the intensive care unit suggests a window of critical opportunity for these patients. Under economic constraints and dearth of intensive care unit beds, increasing the turnover of patients in the intensive care unit, thus exposing more needy patients to the early benefit of treatment in the intensive care unit, may be advantageous.
Only a small proportion of eligible patients reach the intensive care unit, and early admission is imperative for their survival advantage. As intensive care unit benefit was most pronounced among those deteriorating on hospital wards, intensive care unit triage decisions should be targeted at maximizing intensive care unit benefit by early admitting patients deteriorating on hospital wards.
Total readmissions after CABG in Israel were difficult to predict, even with an extensive pre-discharge follow-up data. We propose that reasons for readmission vary from true emergencies to nonspecific causes, with the latter related to a lack of support services in the community. We suggest that cause-specific rehospitalizations could be a better outcome for evaluating quality of care.
The role of perioperative factors in the excess mortality among women after coronary artery bypass grafting shifts the focus of attention from the selection of women for the operation to the in-hospital experience. Improving the outcome for women will entail efforts to prevent complications in the perioperative period.
In outcome studies, quality of care in various institutions is typically assessed by comparing observed to expected outcome rates, after adjusting for patients' case-mix factors in logistic regression models. However, differences in patterns of outcome rates over time, especially when there is a distinction between the determinants affecting early and later events, are rarely studied. We use six-month mortality after coronary artery bypass graft operation (CABG) as an example. We present a statistically valid approach to estimate expected survival curves for different subgroups, based on a Cox survival model with time-varying effects. Bootstrap confidence intervals around the expected survival curves are constructed. This approach is applied for examining the pattern of deviation of high-mortality hospitals after CABG. Implications for quality assessment in comparative outcome studies are discussed.
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