Chilling tolerance was increased in seed germination and root growth of wheat seedlings grown in media containing 20 µg/mL cerebroside C (CC), isolated from the endophytic Phyllosticta sp. TG78. Seeds treated with 20 µg/mL CC at 4°C expressed the higher germination rate (77.78%), potential (23.46%), index (3.44) and the shorter germination time (6.19 d); root growth was also significantly improved by 13.76% in length, 13.44% in fresh weight and 6.88% in dry mass compared to controls. During the cultivation process at 4°C for three days and the followed 24 h at 25°C, lipid peroxidation, expressed by malondialdehyde (MDA) content and relative membrane permeability (RMP) was significantly reduced in CC-treated roots; activities of lipoxygenase (LOX), phospholipid C (PLC) and phospholipid D (PLD) were inhibited by 13.62–62.26%, 13.54–63.93% and 13.90–61.17%, respectively; unsaturation degree of fatty acids was enhanced through detecting the contents of CC-induced linoleic acid, linolenic acid, palmitic acid and stearic acid using GC-MS; capacities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were individually increased by 7.69–46.06%, 3.37–37.96%, and −7.00–178.07%. These results suggest that increased chilling tolerance may be due, in part, to the reduction of lipid peroxidation and alternation of lipid composition of roots in the presence of CC.
Metformin has been reported to function as the anti-tumor inhibiting the growth of different types of cancers, including bladder cancer. But there are few reports on the roles of Yap1, the key molecule of Hippo pathway, in the metformin induced inhibition of bladder cancer (BLCA). We are wondering if the inhibitory effect of metformin on bladder cancer is fulfilled via Yap1 and exploring the related mechanism.
MTS and colony formation assays were used to explore the cellular viabilities and proliferation of BLCA cells challenged by metformin at different concentrations, in vitro. Flow Cytometry (FCM) was used to analyze the cell cycle and the cellular apoptosis of the BLCA cells. Western Blot was performed to detect the expressions of AMPKα, Yap1, CCND1, CCNE1/2 and CDK2/4/6 in the metformin-treated BLCA cell lines. RNAi method was used for the related genetic functional analysis. The relationships among Yap1, TEADs and CCNE1/2 were predicted and evaluated using bioinformatics, dual-luciferase reporter and co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) assays. For in vivo experiments, a xenograft model was used to investigate the effects of metformin on the proliferation of BLCA cells. And Immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay was performed to assess the expressions of CCNE1/2 and Yap1 proteins in the tumor tissues from the model.
Metformin could inhibit the proliferation of the BLCA cells via inducing the G1 cell cycle arrest without apoptosis. And metformin upregulated the phosphorylated AMPKα and decreased the expressions of Yap1 and CCND1, CCNE1/2 and CDK4/6. AMPK inhibition by compound C (CC) restored the cell proliferation and the G1 cell cycle arrest induced by metformin, in vivo. Knockdown of YAP1 inhibited the proliferation of BLCA cells and caused the cell cycle arrest at G1 phase by decreasing the expressions of CCNE1/2 and other G1 phase related molecules, which has been restored by the Yap 5SA mutant. Bioinformatics analysis showed that trans-factor TEAD4 was highly expressed and positively associated with the expressions of CCNE1 and CCNE2 in BLCA and only TEAD4 was precipitated by Yap1 in the BLCA cells. Further studies demonstrated that Yap1 positively regulated both CCNE1 and CCNE2 expressions via forming complex with TEAD4. Furthermore, we observed that metformin inhibited the cell proliferation by decreasing the expressions of Yap1 and both CCNE1 and CCNE2 in xenograft model.
The results of our study reveal a new potential regulatory pathway in which metformin inhibits cell proliferation via AMPKα/Yap1/TEAD4/CCNE1/2 axis in BLCA cells, providing new insights into novel molecular therapeutic targets for BLCA.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (10.1186/s13046-019-1346-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Glioma is regarded as the most prevalent malignant carcinoma of the central nervous system, and lack of effective treatment. Thus, the development of new therapeutic strategies targeting glioma is of significant clinical importance. In the present study, histone H3K27 demethylase jumonji domain-containing protein 3 (JMJD3) was investigated as target for glioma treatment. The mRNA of JMJD3 was overexpressed in glioblastoma tissues compared to normal brain tissues (P<0.05). The content of JMJD3 was also higher in glioma cells than in human brain microvascular endothelial cell (hCMEC), and the corresponding level of H3K27me3 was decreased (P<0.05). The treatment with JMJD3 specific inhibitor GSK-J4 can increase the content of H3K27me3 in glioma cells, which means the activity of JMJD3 was inhibited. GSK-J4 can inhibit glioma cell proliferation in a concentration dependent and time-dependent manner (P<0.05). GSK-J4 also induced glioma cell apoptosis and inhibited cell migration (P<0.05). But there was no obvious effect of GSK-J4 on hCMEC cells. All together, these data suggest that GSK-J4 has important potential in the gliomas treatment.
CT-guided percutaneous vertebral injection of a single simvastatin/poloxamer 407 thermosensitive hydrogel promotes bone formation in ovariectomized minipigs. The underlying mechanism appears to involve the higher expression of VEGF and BMP-2.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.