The problem of channel quality prediction in cognitive radio networks is investigated in this paper. First, the spectrum sensing process is modeled as a Non-Stationary Hidden Markov Model (NSHMM), which captures the fact that the channel state transition probability is a function of the time interval the primary user has stayed in the current state. Then the model parameters, which carry the information about the expected duration of the channel states and the spectrum sensing accuracy (detection accuracy and false alarm probability) of the SU, are estimated via Bayesian inference with Gibbs sampling. Finally, the estimated NSHMM parameters are employed to design a channel quality metric according to the predicted channel idle duration and spectrum sensing accuracy. Extensive simulation study has been performed to investigate the effectiveness of our design. The results indicate that channel ranking based on the proposed channel quality prediction mechanism captures the idle state duration of the channel and the spectrum sensing accuracy of the SUs, and provides more high quality transmission opportunities and higher successful transmission rates at shorter spectrum waiting times for dynamic spectrum access.
The benefits of cognitive radio networking have been well recognized with the emerging wireless applications in recent years. While many existing works assume that the secondary transmissions are negative interferences to the primary users (PUs), in this paper, we take secondary users (SUs) as positive potential cooperators for the PUs. In particular, we consider the problem of cooperative relay selection, in which the PUs actively select appropriate SUs as relay nodes to enhance their transmission performance. The most critical challenge for such a problem is how to select a relay efficiently. Due to the potentially large number of secondary users, it is infeasible for a PU to first scan all the SUs and then pick the best one. Basically, the PU transmitter intends to observe the SUs sequentially. After observing an SU, the PU needs to make a decision regarding whether to terminate its observation and use the current SU as its relay or to skip it and observe the next SU. We address this problem by using the optimal stopping theory and derive the optimal stopping rule. We also discuss the optimal observation order of the SUs and analyze the collision probability. To evaluate the performance of our proposed scheme, we compare our optimal stopping policy with the random selection policy through simulation study, and the results demonstrate the superiority of our policy. Extensive simulation study is conducted to investigate the impact of different parameters on the system performance, and the results indicate that our algorithm can satisfy different system requirements by carefully tuning the corresponding system parameters.Index Terms-Cognitive radio networks; cooperative relay selection; optimal stopping theory; spectrum sensing order. 0018-9545 (c)
The Internet of Things (IoT) is a significant branch of the ongoing advances in the Internet and mobile communications. Yet, the use of a large number of IoT devices can severely worsen the spectrum scarcity problem. The usable spectrum resources are almost entirely occupied, and thus, the increasing demands of radio access from IoT devices cannot be met. To tackle this problem, the Cognitive Internet of Things (CIoT) has been proposed. In a CIoT network, secondary users, i.e., sensors and actuators, can access the licensed spectrum bands provided by licensed primary users (such as cellular telephones). Security is a major concern in CIoT networks. However, the traditional encryption method at upper layers (such as symmetric and asymmetric ciphers) may not be suitable for CIoT networks since these networks are composed of low-profile devices. In this paper, we address the security issues in spectrum-leasing-based CIoT networks using physical layer methods. Considering that the CIoT networks are cooperative in nature, we propose to employ cooperative jamming to achieve secure transmission. In our proposed cooperative jamming scheme, a certain secondary user is employed as the helper to harvest energy transmitted by the source and then uses the harvested energy to generate an artificial noise that jams the eavesdropper without interfering with the legitimate receivers. The goal is to minimize the Signal to Interference plus Noise Ratio (SINR) at the eavesdropper subject to the Quality of Service (QoS) constraints of the primary traffic and the secondary traffic. We formulate the minimization problem into a two-stage robust optimization problem based on the worst-case Channel State Information of the Eavesdropper (ECSI). By using Semi-Definite Programming (SDP), the optimal solutions of the transmit covariance matrices can be obtained. Moreover, in order to build an incentive mechanism for the secondary users, we propose an auction framework based on the cooperative jamming scheme. The proposed auction framework jointly formulates the helper selection and the corresponding energy allocation problems under the constraint of the eavesdropper's SINR. By adopting the Vickrey auction, truthfulness and individual rationality can be achieved. Simulation results demonstrate the effective performance of the cooperative jamming scheme and the auction framework.
In the Internet of Things (IoT), aggregation and release of real-time data can often be used for mining more useful information so as to make humans lives more convenient and efficient. However, privacy disclosure is one of the most concerning issues because sensitive information usually comes with users in aggregated data. Thus, various data encryption technologies have emerged to achieve privacy preserving. These technologies may not only introduce complicated computing and high communication overhead but also do not work on the protection of endless data streams. Considering these challenges, we propose a real-time stream data aggregation framework with adaptive -event differential privacy (Re-ADP). Based on adaptive -event differential privacy, the framework can protect any data collected by sensors over any dynamic time stamp successively over infinite stream. It is designed for the fog computing architecture that dramatically extends the cloud computing to the edge of networks. In our proposed framework, fog servers will only send aggregated secure data to cloud servers, which can relieve the computing overhead of cloud servers, improve communication efficiency, and protect data privacy. Finally, experimental results demonstrate that our framework outperforms the existing methods and improves data availability with stronger privacy preserving.
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