Mitochondrial apparatus is a fundamental aspect in cell, serving for amino acid biosynthesis, fatty acid oxidation (FAO), and ATP production. In this article, we investigated the change of mitochondrial oxidative capacity during porcine adipocyte differentiation and in response to leptin. Rhodamine 123 staining analysis showed about 2-fold increase of mitochondrial membrane electric potential in differentiated adipocyte in comparison with preadipocyte. The mRNA expression of Cytochromes c (Cyt c), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), and malate dehydrogenases (MDH) increased markedly (P < 0.05), but that of UCP2 decreased (P < 0.05). Moreover PGC-1alpha and UCP3 was very low and showed no changes during the adipocyte differentiation. The protein expression of Cyt c and the enzyme activity of Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) increased with preadipocyte differentiation, but cellular ATP level decreased. Furthermore, at the level of 10 and 100 ng/ml leptin not only selectively increased the gene expression of PGC-1alpha, CPT1, Cyt c, UCP2, and UCP3 (P < 0.05), but also enhanced COX enzyme activity which related to mitochondrial FAO. There is no change of Mitochondrial membrane electric potential and ATP level in cell treated by leptin. These results suggested Mitochondrial is not only critical in FAO, but also play an important role in adipogenesis.
During field weakening operation time (FWOT), the total iron loss rises and affects the 11 accuracy of loss prediction and efficiency especially if a large range of FWOT exists due to a large 12 voltage drop which rooted from the resistance of the used material. Iron loss prediction is widely 13 employed in investigations for a fast electrical machine analysis using 2-D FEA. This paper proposes 14 harmonic loss analytically by a steady-state equivalent circuit with a novel procedure. 15 Consideration of skin effects and iron saturation are utilized in order to examine the accuracy 16 through the relative error distribution in the frequency domain of each model from 50 to 700 Hz. 17 Additionally, this comparative study presents a torque-frequency-field density calculation over 18 each single term of the modified IEM-formula. The proposed analytical calculation is performed 19 using 2-D FEA for a classic and modified IEM-formula along with experimental verifications on a 20 surface-mounted permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) for a wind generation 21 application. 22
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