Various cell types can trans-differentiate to a transfer cell (TC) morphology characterized by deposition of polarized ingrowth walls comprised of a uniform layer on which wall ingrowths (WIs) develop. WIs form scaffolds supporting amplified plasma membrane areas enriched in transporters conferring a cellular capacity for high rates of nutrient exchange across apo- and symplasmic interfaces. The hypothesis that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a component of the regulatory pathway inducing ingrowth wall formation was tested using Vicia faba cotyledons. Vicia faba cotyledons offer a robust experimental model to examine TC induction as, on being placed into culture, their adaxial epidermal cells rapidly (hours) form ingrowth walls on their outer periclinal walls. These are readily visualized by electron microscopy, and epidermal peels of their trans-differentiating cells allow measures of cell-specific gene expression. Ingrowth wall formation responded inversely to pharmacological manipulation of ROS levels, indicating that a flavin-containing enzyme (NADPH oxidase) and superoxide dismutase cooperatively generate a regulatory H2O2 signature. Extracellular H2O2 fluxes peaked prior to the appearance of WIs and were followed by a slower rise in H2O2 flux that occurred concomitantly, and co-localized, with ingrowth wall formation. De-localizing the H2O2 signature caused a corresponding de-localization of cell wall deposition. Temporal and epidermal cell-specific expression profiles of VfrbohA and VfrbohC coincided with those of extracellular H2O2 production and were regulated by cross-talk with ethylene. It is concluded that H2O2 functions, downstream of ethylene, to activate cell wall biosynthesis and direct polarized deposition of a uniform wall on which WIs form.
Transfer cells (TCs) are ubiquitous throughout the plant kingdom. Their unique ingrowth wall labyrinths, supporting a plasma membrane enriched in transporter proteins, provides these cells with an enhanced membrane transport capacity for resources. In certain plant species, TCs have been shown to function to facilitate phloem loading and/or unloading at cellular sites of intense resource exchange between symplasmic/apoplasmic compartments. Within the phloem, the key cellular locations of TCs are leaf minor veins of collection phloem and stem nodes of transport phloem. In these locations, companion and phloem parenchyma cells trans-differentiate to a TC morphology consistent with facilitating loading and re-distribution of resources, respectively. At a species level, occurrence of TCs is significantly higher in transport than in collection phloem. TCs are absent from release phloem, but occur within post-sieve element unloading pathways and particularly at interfaces between generations of developing Angiosperm seeds. Experimental accessibility of seed TCs has provided opportunities to investigate their inductive signaling, regulation of ingrowth wall formation and membrane transport function. This review uses this information base to explore current knowledge of phloem transport function and inductive signaling for phloem-associated TCs. The functional role of collection phloem and seed TCs is supported by definitive evidence, but no such information is available for stem node TCs that present an almost intractable experimental challenge. There is an emerging understanding of inductive signals and signaling pathways responsible for initiating trans-differentiation to a TC morphology in developing seeds. However, scant information is available to comment on a potential role for inductive signals (auxin, ethylene and reactive oxygen species) that induce seed TCs, in regulating induction of phloem-associated TCs. Biotic phloem invaders have been used as a model to speculate on involvement of these signals.
BackgroundTransfer cells are characterized by intricate ingrowth walls, comprising an uniform wall upon which wall ingrowths are deposited. The ingrowth wall forms a scaffold to support an amplified plasma membrane surface area enriched in membrane transporters that collectively confers transfer cells with an enhanced capacity for membrane transport at bottlenecks for apo-/symplasmic exchange of nutrients. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms regulating polarized construction of the ingrowth wall and membrane transporter profile are poorly understood.ResultsAn RNAseq study of an inducible epidermal transfer cell system in cultured Vicia faba cotyledons identified transfer cell specific transcriptomes associated with uniform wall and wall ingrowth deposition. All functional groups of genes examined were expressed before and following transition to a transfer cell fate. What changed were the isoform profiles of expressed genes within functional groups. Genes encoding ethylene and Ca2+ signal generation and transduction pathways were enriched during uniform wall construction. Auxin-and reactive oxygen species-related genes dominated during wall ingrowth formation and ABA genes were evenly expressed across ingrowth wall construction. Expression of genes encoding kinesins, formins and villins was consistent with reorganization of cytoskeletal components. Uniform wall and wall ingrowth specific expression of exocyst complex components and SNAREs suggested specific patterns of exocytosis while dynamin mediated endocytotic activity was consistent with establishing wall ingrowth loci. Key regulatory genes of biosynthetic pathways for sphingolipids and sterols were expressed across ingrowth wall construction. Transfer cell specific expression of cellulose synthases was absent. Rather xyloglucan, xylan and pectin biosynthetic genes were selectively expressed during uniform wall construction. More striking was expression of genes encoding enzymes for re-modelling/degradation of cellulose, xyloglucans, pectins and callose. Extensins dominated the cohort of expressed wall structural proteins and particularly so across wall ingrowth development. Ion transporters were selectively expressed throughout ingrowth wall development along with organic nitrogen transporters and a large group of ABC transporters. Sugar transporters were less represented.ConclusionsPathways regulating signalling and intracellular organization were fine tuned whilst cell wall construction and membrane transporter profiles were altered substantially upon transiting to a transfer cell fate. Each phase of ingrowth wall construction was linked with unique cohorts of expressed genes.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12870-015-0486-5) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
Transfer cells are characterized by wall labyrinths with either a flange or reticulate architecture. A literature survey established that reticulate wall ingrowth papillae ubiquitously arise from a modified component of their wall labyrinth, termed the uniform wall layer; a structure absent from flange transfer cells. This finding sparked an investigation of the deposition characteristics and role of the uniform wall layer using a Vicia faba cotyledon culture system. On transfer of cotyledons to culture, their adaxial epidermal cells spontaneously trans-differentiate to a reticulate architecture comparable to their abaxial epidermal transfer cell counterparts formed in planta. Uniform wall layer construction commenced once adaxial epidermal cell expansion had ceased to overlay the original outer periclinal wall on its inner surface. In contrast to the dense ring-like lattice of cellulose microfibrils in the original primary wall, the uniform wall layer was characterized by a sparsely dispersed array of linear cellulose microfibrils. A re-modeled cortical microtubule array exerted no influence on uniform wall layer formation or on its cellulose microfibril organization. Surprisingly, formation of the uniform wall layer was not dependent upon depositing a cellulose scaffold. In contrast, uniform wall cellulose microfibrils were essential precursors for constructing wall ingrowth papillae. On converging to form wall ingrowth papillae, the cellulose microfibril diameters increased 3-fold. This event correlated with up-regulated differential, and transfer-cell specific, expression of VfCesA3B while transcript levels of other cellulose biosynthetic-related genes linked with primary wall construction were substantially down-regulated.
Biological applications of nanomaterials as delivery carriers have been embedded in traditional biomedical research for decades. Despite lagging behind, recent significant breakthroughs in the use of nanocarriers as tools for plant biotechnology have created great interest. In this Perspective, we review the outstanding recent works in nanocarrier‐mediated plant transformation and its agricultural applications. We analyze the chemical and physical properties of nanocarriers determining their uptake efficiency and transport throughout the plant body.
Transfer cells (TCs) support high rates of membrane transport of nutrients conferred by a plasma membrane area amplified by lining a wall labyrinth comprised of an uniform wall layer (UWL) upon which intricate wall ingrowth (WI) papillae are deposited. A signal cascade of auxin, ethylene, extracellular hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and cytosolic Ca2+ regulates wall labyrinth assembly. To identify gene cohorts regulated by each signal, a RNA- sequencing study was undertaken using Vicia faba cotyledons. When cotyledons are placed in culture, their adaxial epidermal cells spontaneously undergo trans-differentiation to epidermal TCs (ETCs). Expressed genes encoding proteins central to wall labyrinth formation (signaling, intracellular organization, cell wall) and TC function of nutrient transport were assembled. Transcriptional profiles identified 9,742 annotated ETC-specific differentially expressed genes (DEGs; Log2fold change > 1; FDR p ≤ 0.05) of which 1,371 belonged to signaling (50%), intracellular organization (27%), cell wall (15%) and nutrient transporters (9%) functional categories. Expression levels of 941 ETC-specific DEGs were found to be sensitive to the known signals regulating ETC trans-differentiation. Significantly, signals acting alone, or in various combinations, impacted similar numbers of ETC-specific DEGs across the four functional gene categories. Amongst the signals acting alone, H2O2 exerted most influence affecting expression levels of 56% of the ETC-specific DEGs followed by Ca2+ (21%), auxin (18%) and ethylene (5%). The dominance by H2O2 was evident across all functional categories, but became more attenuated once trans-differentiation transitioned into WI papillae formation. Amongst the eleven signal combinations, H2O2/Ca2+ elicited the greatest impact across all functional categories accounting for 20% of the ETC-specific DEG cohort. The relative influence of the other signals acting alone, or in various combinations, varied across the four functional categories and two phases of wall labyrinth construction. These transcriptome data provide a powerful information platform from which to examine signal transduction pathways and how these regulate expression of genes encoding proteins engaged in intracellular organization, cell wall construction and nutrient transport.
Nutrient partitioning within plants is primarily regulated at sites of intense apo-/symplasmic nutrient exchange such as loading/ unloading of vascular systems and loading of developing seeds.1 Space constraints at these sites necessitate high nutrient fluxes per transport cell thus creating potential "transport bottlenecks" by substrate saturation of their membrane transporters. A striking solution to this problem has been the evolution of a cell design where plasma membrane surface areas are substantially amplified (up to 20x) by constructing intricately-invaginated ingrowth walls that form scaffolds to support amplified plasma membrane areas 2 and hence accommodate high transport rates (e.g., see refs. 3, 4). These specialized cells, called transfer cells (TCs), are formed by trans-differentiating from a range of differentiated cell types. Their ingrowth walls are polarized to the direction of the intricate, and often polarized, ingrowth walls of transfer cells (tCs) amplify their plasma membrane surface areas to confer a transport function of supporting high rates of nutrient exchange across apo-/symplasmic interfaces. the tC ingrowth wall comprises a uniform wall layer on which wall ingrowths are deposited. Signals and signal cascades inducing trans-differentiation events leading to formation of tC ingrowth walls are poorly understood. Vicia faba cotyledons offer a robust experimental model to examine tC induction as, when placed into culture, their adaxial epidermal cells rapidly (h) and synchronously form polarized ingrowth walls accessible for experimental observations. using this model, we recently reported findings consistent with extracellular hydrogen peroxide, produced through a respiratory burst oxidase homolog/superoxide dismutase pathway, initiating cell wall biosynthetic activity and providing directional information guiding deposition of the polarized uniform wall. our conclusions rested on observations derived from pharmacological manipulations of hydrogen peroxide production and correlative gene expression data sets. a series of additional studies were undertaken, the results of which verify that extracellular hydrogen peroxide contributes to regulating ingrowth wall formation and is generated by a respiratory burst oxidase homolog/superoxide dismutase pathway. Keywords: cell wall peroxidase, hydrogen peroxide, respiratory burst oxidase, trans-differentiation, transfer cell, cell wall, Vicia faba Abbreviations: BHA, butylated hydroxyanisole; DAB, 3',3'-diaminobenzidine; DDC, diethyldithiocarbamate; DPI, diphenyleneiodonium; EIN3, Ethylene Insensitive 3; ERFs, Ethylene Response Factors,; HXK, hexokinase; ROS, reactive oxygen species; rboh, respiratory burst oxidase homologue; SEM, scanning electron microscopy; SOD, superoxide dismutase; TC, transfer cell; TEM, transmission electron microscopy nutrient transport and comprise a uniform wall on which wall ingrowths (WIs) are deposited. 2 Despite the key physiological significance of TCs in nutrient transport and plant productivity, the regulatory...
Ethylene and extracellular hydrogen peroxide co-regulate formation of a sterol-enriched plasma membrane domain in trans-differentiating epidermal transfer cells that functions to co-ordinate construction of their wall labyrinth.
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