Broader applications of carbon nanotubes to real-world problems have largely gone unfulfilled because of difficult material synthesis and laborious processing. We report high-performance multifunctional carbon nanotube (CNT) fibers that combine the specific strength, stiffness, and thermal conductivity of carbon fibers with the specific electrical conductivity of metals. These fibers consist of bulk-grown CNTs and are produced by high-throughput wet spinning, the same process used to produce high-performance industrial fibers. These scalable CNT fibers are positioned for high-value applications, such as aerospace electronics and field emission, and can evolve into engineered materials with broad long-term impact, from consumer electronics to long-range power transmission.O n the molecular level, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have an outstanding combination of mechanical strength and stiffness, electrical and thermal conductivity, and low density, making them ideal multifunctional materials that combine the best properties of polymers, carbon fibers, and metals (1). However, such outstanding properties have remained elusive on a macroscopic scale. Handling CNTs with sufficient length, stiffness, and chemical inertness introduces major challenges in material processing. Here we report lightweight fibers that approach the high specific strength of polymeric and carbon fibers, while also achieving the high specific electrical conductivity of metals and the specific thermal conductivity of graphite fibers.Two distinct routes have been developed for manufacturing neat CNT fibers (2). One route employs a solid-state process wherein CNTs are either directly spun into a fiber from the synthesis reaction zone (3, 4) or from a CNT forest grown on a solid substrate (5). This approach does not lend itself to the typical easy scale-up of chemical processes, as it combines multiple steps into a single one, limiting the options for process and material optimization. Indeed, solidstate fibers have low packing and poor orientation, and include impurities within their structure (6). Despite these shortcomings, solid-state CNT fibers have delivered the best properties so far (3, 4, 7-9). The reason for this relative success is the length of the CNTs that constitute these fibers-1 mm or more (2). Longer CNTs reduce the number of CNT ends in a fiber, yielding greater strength (10) and reducing CNT junctions, which increases electrical and thermal conductivity (11). The alternate fiber production route-wet spinning-was the first method for producing CNT fibers (12). In this process, premade CNTs are dissolved or dispersed in a fluid, extruded out of a spinneret, and coagulated into a solid fiber by extracting the dispersant. Wet spinning is easily scaled to industrial levels and is indeed the route by which highperformance fibers are manufactured (including ballistic fibers such as Kevlar and Twaron and structural fibers such as Toho Tenax and Thornel carbon fibers) (13). Decoupling the synthesis of CNTs from the spinning of the fibers allo...
A single double-strand break (DSB) induced by HO endonuclease triggers both repair by homologous recombination and activation of the Mec1-dependent DNA damage checkpoint in budding yeast  . Here we report that DNA damage checkpoint activation by a DSB requires the cyclin-dependent kinase CDK1 (Cdc28) in budding yeast. CDK1 is also required for DSB-induced homologous recombination at any cell cycle stage. Inhibition of homologous recombination by using an analogue-sensitive CDK1 protein 7,8 results in a compensatory increase in nonhomologous end joining. CDK1 is required for efficient 5′ to 3′ resection of DSB ends and for the recruitment of both the single-stranded DNA-binding complex, RPA, and the Rad51 recombination protein. In contrast, Mre11 protein, part of the MRX complex, accumulates at unresected DSB ends. CDK1 is not required when the DNA damage checkpoint is initiated by lesions that are processed by nucleotide excision repair. Maintenance of the DSB-induced checkpoint requires continuing CDK1 activity that ensures continuing end resection. CDK1 is also important for a later step in homologous recombination, after strand invasion and before the initiation of new DNA synthesis.In budding yeast, a chromosomal DSB created by HO endonuclease has been used both to study the kinetics and efficiency of DSB repair and to analyse the induction of the DNA damage checkpoint dependent on Mec1 (an ATR homologue). In cells carrying HML or HMR mating-type switching donor sequences, a DSB at the MAT locus is efficiently repaired by gene conversion. In strains lacking donor sequences, induction of an unrepairable DSB causes arrest of cell cycle progression before anaphase 1,2 . In bothCorrespondence and requests for materials should be addressed to M.F. (email@example.com) or J.E.H. † Present address: Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, New York 10021-6399, USA. ★ These authors contributed equally to this work Supplementary Information accompanies the paper on www.nature.com/nature. Competing interests statementThe authors declare that they have no competing financial interests. instances, a key step is the 5′ to 3′ resection of DSB ends to produce single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), which is bound by the RPA complex. RPA binding is essential both for association of Mec1 checkpoint kinase 9 and for loading of Rad51 recombination protein 6 . HHS Public AccessActivation of the Mec1-dependent DNA damage checkpoint after a DSB is regulated by the cell cycle 3 , with no activation in G1-arrested cells. A DSB induced in cells that have been arrested in G1, and then released into S phase, results in hyperphosphorylation of the Mec1 target Rad53 after the completion of S phase, in G2 ( Supplementary Fig. S1a). To test whether the checkpoint depends on the activity of cyclin-dependent kinases, we inactivated CDK1 in nocodazole-blocked G2 cells. We overexpressed the CDK1/Clb inhibitor, Sic1 (ref. 10), in G2 cells at the same time that an unrepairable DSB was induced at MAT. CDK1 i...
The ex vivo application of enzymes in various processes, especially via enzyme immobilization techniques, has been extensively studied in recent years in order to enhance the recyclability of enzymes, to minimize enzyme contamination in the product, and to explore novel horizons for enzymes in biomedical applications. Possessing remarkable amenability in structural design of the frameworks as well as almost unparalelled surface tunability, Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) have been gaining popularity as candidates for enzyme immobilization platforms. Many MOF-enzyme composites have achieved unprecedented results, far outperforming free enzymes in many aspects. This review summarizes recent developments of MOF-enzyme composites with special emphasis on preparative techniques and the synergistic effects of enzymes and MOFs. The applications of MOF-enzyme composites, primarily in transferation, catalysis and sensing, are presented as well. The enhancement of enzymatic activity of the composites over free enzymes in biologically incompatible conditions is emphasized in many cases.
We present a proof-of-concept demonstration of an all-printed temporary tattoo-based glucose sensor for noninvasive glycemic monitoring. The sensor represents the first example of an easy-to-wear flexible tattoo-based epidermal diagnostic device combining reverse iontophoretic extraction of interstitial glucose and an enzyme-based amperometric biosensor. In-vitro studies reveal the tattoo sensor's linear response toward physiologically relevant glucose levels with negligible interferences from common coexisting electroactive species. The iontophoretic-biosensing tattoo platform is reduced to practice by applying the device on human subjects and monitoring variations in glycemic levels due to food consumption. Correlation of the sensor response with that of a commercial glucose meter underscores the promise of the tattoo sensor to detect glucose levels in a noninvasive fashion. Control on-body experiments demonstrate the importance of the reverse iontophoresis operation and validate the sensor specificity. This preliminary investigation indicates that the tattoo-based iontophoresis-sensor platform holds considerable promise for efficient diabetes management and can be extended toward noninvasive monitoring of other physiologically relevant analytes present in the interstitial fluid.
Rosenstiel Center and family of chromatin-remodeling proteins and appears Department of Biology to act at a later step in strand exchange, to extend Brandeis University heteroduplex DNA, and to alter DNA conformation dur-Waltham, Massachusetts 02454 ing the synaptic and/or postsynaptic phases of strand exchange (
. However, the engineering of enzymes is severely hampered due to their low operational stability and difficulty of reuse. Here, we develop a series of stable metal-organic frameworks with rationally designed ultra-large mesoporous cages as single-molecule traps (SMTs) for enzyme encapsulation. With a high concentration of mesoporous cages as SMTs, PCN-333(Al) encapsulates three enzymes with record-high loadings and recyclability. Immobilized enzymes that most likely undergo single-enzyme encapsulation (SEE) show smaller K m than free enzymes while maintaining comparable catalytic efficiency. Under harsh conditions, the enzyme in SEE exhibits better performance than free enzyme, showing the effectiveness of SEE in preventing enzyme aggregation or denaturation. With extraordinarily large pore size and excellent chemical stability, PCN-333 may be of interest not only for enzyme encapsulation, but also for entrapment of other nanoscaled functional moieties.
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