Over the last decade, the introduction of microarray technology has had a profound impact on gene expression research. The publication of studies with dissimilar or altogether contradictory results, obtained using different microarray platforms to analyze identical RNA samples, has raised concerns about the reliability of this technology. The MicroArray Quality Control (MAQC) project was initiated to address these concerns, as well as other performance and data analysis issues. Expression data on four titration pools from two distinct reference RNA samples were generated at multiple test sites using a variety of microarray-based and alternative technology platforms. Here we describe the experimental design and probe mapping efforts behind the MAQC project. We show intraplatform consistency across test sites as well as a high level of interplatform concordance in terms of genes identified as differentially expressed. This study provides a resource that represents an important first step toward establishing a framework for the use of microarrays in clinical and regulatory settings.
Mitochondrial morphology is dynamically remodeled by fusion and fission in cells, and dysregulation of this process is closely implicated in tumorigenesis. However, the mechanism by which mitochondrial dynamics influence cancer cell survival is considerably less clear, especially in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we systematically investigated the alteration of mitochondrial dynamics and its functional role in the regulation of autophagy and HCC cell survival. Furthermore, the underlying molecular mechanisms and therapeutic application were explored in depth. Mitochondrial fission was frequently upregulated in HCC tissues mainly due to an elevated expression ratio of DNM1L to MFN1, which significantly contributed to poor prognosis of HCC patients. Increased mitochondrial fission by forced expression of DNM1L or knockdown of MFN1 promoted the survival of HCC cells both in vitro and in vivo mainly by facilitating autophagy and inhibiting mitochondria-dependent apoptosis. We further demonstrated that the survival-promoting role of increased mitochondrial fission was mediated via elevated ROS production and subsequent activation of AKT, which facilitated MDM2-mediated TP53 degradation, and NFKBIA- and IKK-mediated transcriptional activity of NFKB in HCC cells. Also, a crosstalk between TP53 and NFKB pathways was involved in the regulation of mitochondrial fission-mediated cell survival. Moreover, treatment with mitochondrial division inhibitor-1 significantly suppressed tumor growth in an in vivo xenograft nude mice model. Our findings demonstrate that increased mitochondrial fission plays a critical role in regulation of HCC cell survival, which provides a strong evidence for this process as drug target in HCC treatment.
In the present work, a new computational framework for structural topology optimization based on the concept of moving deformable components is proposed. Compared with the traditional pixel or node point-based solution framework, the proposed solution paradigm can incorporate more geometry and mechanical information into topology optimization directly and therefore render the solution process more flexible. It also has the great potential to reduce the computational burden associated with topology optimization substantially. Some representative examples are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Background: Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a novel class of endogenous noncoding RNAs formed by a covalently closed loop, and increasing evidence has revealed that circRNAs play crucial functions in regulating gene expression. CircSLC8A1 is a circRNA generated from the SLC8A1 gene. Currently, the role and underlying molecular mechanisms of circSLC8A1 in bladder cancer remain unknown. Methods: The differentially expressed circRNAs were identified from RNA-sequencing data, and circSLC8A1 was determined as a new candidate circRNA. qRT-PCR was used to detect the expression of circRNAs, miRNAs and mRNAs in human tissues and cells. RNA pull-down assay and luciferase reporter assay were used to investigate the interactions between the specific circRNA, miRNA and mRNA. The effects of circSLC8A1 on bladder cancer cells were explored by transfecting with plasmids in vitro and in vivo. The expression of PTEN was detected by Western blot. The biological roles were measured by wound healing assay, transwell assay, and CCK-8 assay. Results: In the present study, we found that circSLC8A1 was down-regulated in bladder cancer tissues and cell lines, and circSLC8A1 expression was associated with the pathological stage and histological grade of bladder cancer. Over-expression of circSLC8A1 inhibited cell migration, invasion and proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistically, circSLC8A1 could directly interact with miR-130b/miR-494, and subsequently act as a miRNA sponge to regulate the expression of the miR-130b/miR-494 target gene PTEN and downstream signaling pathway, which suppressed the progression of bladder cancer. Conclusions: CircSLC8A1 acts as a tumor suppressor by a novel circSLC8A1/miR-130b, miR-494/PTEN axis, which may provide a potential biomarker and therapeutic target for the management of bladder cancer. Background Bladder cancer is the most common malignancy of the urinary system and is one of the most prevalent malignancies worldwide . In China, the mortality and morbidity of bladder cancer ranked first among all the tumors of urinary system . Bladder cancer can be classified into two types according to the depth of tumor invasion: non-muscle invasive tumor (70~80%) and muscle-invasive tumor (20~30%) .For the patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer, the occurrence of metastasis is more frequent, and the prognosis is poorer . Even in those muscle-invasive bladder cancer patients who receive optimal treatment with surgery and chemotherapy, the 5-year overall survival rate is only 60% due to distant metastasis . Therefore, it is of great clinical significance to clarify the molecular mechanisms that drive the progression of bladder cancer, which will help to develop more effective anticancer therapies. Circular RNA (circRNA) is a novel class of endogenous noncoding RNA molecules generally characterized
Background: Reproducibility is a fundamental requirement in scientific experiments. Some recent publications have claimed that microarrays are unreliable because lists of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) are not reproducible in similar experiments. Meanwhile, new statistical methods for identifying DEGs continue to appear in the scientific literature. The resultant variety of existing and emerging methods exacerbates confusion and continuing debate in the microarray community on the appropriate choice of methods for identifying reliable DEG lists.
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