Here we show that iNOS-deficient mice display enhanced classically activated M1 macrophage polarization without major effects on alternatively activated M2 macrophages. eNOS and nNOS mutant mice show comparable M1 macrophage polarization compared with wild-type control mice. Addition of N6-(1-iminoethyl)-L-lysine dihydrochloride, an iNOS inhibitor, significantly enhances M1 macrophage polarization while S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine, a NO donor, suppresses M1 macrophage polarization. NO derived from iNOS mediates nitration of tyrosine residues in IRF5 protein, leading to the suppression of IRF5-targeted M1 macrophage signature gene activation. Computational analyses corroborate a circuit that fine-tunes the expression of IL-12 by iNOS in macrophages, potentially enabling versatile responses based on changing microenvironments. Finally, studies of an experimental model of endotoxin shock show that iNOS deficiency results in more severe inflammation with an enhanced M1 macrophage activation phenotype. These results suggest that NO derived from iNOS in activated macrophages suppresses M1 macrophage polarization.
• Acid phosphatase activity was negatively correlated with soil pH and P content.• βG, NAG, and LAP activities were positively correlated with SOC and Total N contents.• The four enzyme activities were significantly higher under manure than NPK fertilizer.• Enzyme activities were positively correlated with actinomycete and G + bacterium.• We recommend reducing P fertilizer application rates to subtropical paddy soils. G R A P H I C A L A B S T R A C Ta b s t r a c t a r t i c l e i n f o Long-term phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) applications may seriously affect soil microbial activity. A long-term field fertilizer application trial was established on reddish paddy soils in the subtropical region of southern China in 1998. We assessed the effects of swine manure and seven different rates or ratios of NPK fertilizer treatments on (1) the absolute and specific enzyme activities per unit of soil organic carbon (SOC) or microbial biomass carbon (MBC) involved in C, N, and P transformations and (2) their relationships with soil environmental factors and soil microbial community structures. The results showed that manure applications led to increases in the absolute and specific activities of soil β-1,4-glucosidase(βG), β-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAG), and leucine aminopeptidase (LAP). The absolute and specific acid phosphatase (AP) activities decreased as mineral P fertilizer application rates and ratios increased. Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that there were negative correlations between absolute and specific AP activities, pH, and total P contents, while there were positive correlations between soil absolute and specific βG, NAG, and LAP enzyme activities, and SOC and total N contents. RDA showed that the contents of actinomycete and Gram-positive bacterium PLFA biomarkers are more closely related to the absolute and specific enzyme activities than the other PLFA biomarkers (P b 0.01). Our results suggest that both the absolute and specific enzyme activities could be used as sensitive soil quality indicators that provide useful linkages with the microbial community structures and environmental factors. To maintain microbial activity and to minimize environmental impacts, P should be applied as a combination of inorganic and organic forms, and total P fertilizer application rates to subtropical paddy soils should not exceed 44 kg P ha −1 year −1 .
Background Three-dimensional T1 magnetization prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo (3D-T1-MPRAGE) is preferred in detecting brain metastases (BM) among MRI. We developed an automatic deep learning–based detection and segmentation method for BM (named BMDS net) on 3D-T1-MPRAGE images and evaluated its performance. Methods The BMDS net is a cascaded 3D fully convolution network (FCN) to automatically detect and segment BM. In total, 1652 patients with 3D-T1-MPRAGE images from 3 hospitals (n = 1201, 231, and 220, respectively) were retrospectively included. Manual segmentations were obtained by a neuroradiologist and a radiation oncologist in a consensus reading in 3D-T1-MPRAGE images. Sensitivity, specificity, and dice ratio of the segmentation were evaluated. Specificity and sensitivity measure the fractions of relevant segmented voxels. Dice ratio was used to quantitatively measure the overlap between automatic and manual segmentation results. Paired samples t-tests and analysis of variance were employed for statistical analysis. Results The BMDS net can detect all BM, providing a detection result with an accuracy of 100%. Automatic segmentations correlated strongly with manual segmentations through 4-fold cross-validation of the dataset with 1201 patients: the sensitivity was 0.96 ± 0.03 (range, 0.84–0.99), the specificity was 0.99 ± 0.0002 (range, 0.99–1.00), and the dice ratio was 0.85 ± 0.08 (range, 0.62–0.95) for total tumor volume. Similar performances on the other 2 datasets also demonstrate the robustness of BMDS net in correctly detecting and segmenting BM in various settings. Conclusions The BMDS net yields accurate detection and segmentation of BM automatically and could assist stereotactic radiotherapy management for diagnosis, therapy planning, and follow-up.
Hepatitis A virus (HAV), a classic nonenveloped virus, has recently been found to be released mainly in the form of quasi-enveloped HAV (eHAV) by hijacking host endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) complexes. Unlike the nonenveloped virion, eHAV contains the viral protein pX on the surface of the HAV capsid as an extension of VP1. How HAV capsids acquire the host envelope and whether the pX protein is involved in this process were previously unknown. Here, we analyse the role of pX in foreign protein secretion in exosome-like extracellular vesicles (EVs) and the formation of eHAV. Fusion of pX to eGFP guided eGFP into exosome-like EVs through directing eGFP into multivesicular bodies (MVBs), and apoptosis-linked gene 2-interacting protein X (ALIX) release was significantly enhanced. Coimmunoprecipitation (co-IP) demonstrated the interaction between pX and the ALIX V domain. Removal of the C-terminal half of pX abolished eHAV release and reduced the interaction between the HAV virion and ALIX. Finally, the C-terminal half of pX alone was sufficient for loading eGFP into EVs by interacting with ALIX. In conclusion, the C-terminal part of pX is important for eHAV production and may have potential for large protein complex loading into exosome-like EVs for therapeutic purposes.
A novel hydrophilic pyridine-bridged bis-benzimidazolylidene palladium pincer complex (3) acted as a highly efficient robust recyclable molecular catalyst towards Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reactions in aqueous media and tolerated various functional groups (even heterocycles) with extremely low catalyst loading.
BackgroundOccult breast cancer (OBC) is a rare type of breast cancer that has not been well studied. The clinicopathological characteristics and treatment recommendations for OBC are based on a limited number of retrospective studies and thus remain controversial.Patients and methodsWe identified 479 OBC patients and 115,739 non-OBC patients from 2004 to 2014 in and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. The clinicopathological characteristics and survival outcomes were compared between OBC and non-OBC patients. We used the propensity score 1:1 matching analysis to evaluate OBC vs non-OBC comparison using balanced groups with respect to the observed covariates. We further divided the OBC population into four groups based on different treatment strategies. Univariable and multivariable analyses were used to calculate and compare the four treatment outcomes within the OBC population.ResultsOBC patients were older, exhibited a more advanced stage, a higher rate of negative estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor status, a higher rate of HER2-positive status, and a higher rate of ≥10 positive lymph nodes, and were less likely to undergo surgical treatment than non-OBC patients. After adjustments for clinicopathological factors, the OBC patients exhibited a significantly better survival than the non-OBC patients (P<0.001). This result was confirmed in a 1:1 matched case–control analysis. Within the four OBC treatment groups, we observed no difference in survival among the mastectomy group, the breast-conserving surgery (BCS) group, and the axillary lymph node dissection (ALND)-only group. The multivariable analysis revealed that the sentinel lymph node dissection-only group had the worst prognosis (P<0.001). Conclusion: OBC has unique clinicopathological characteristics and a favorable prognosis compared with non-OBC. BCS plus ALND and radiotherapy showed a survival benefit that was similar to that of mastectomy for OBC patients.
Rationale: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a highly lethal disease with few therapeutic targets and rare effective treatments. Over 90% of PDAC tumors bear a Kras mutation, and the single-site mutation G12D (Kras G12D ) is most prevalent. Methods: Here, we applied the CRISPR-CasRx system to silence the mutant Kras G12D transcript in PDAC cells. We also used a capsid-optimized adenovirus-associated virus 8 vector (AAV8) to deliver the CRISPR-CasRx system into PDAC orthotopic tumors and patient-derived tumor xenografts (PDX). Results: Our data showed that guided by a KrasG12D-specific gRNA, CasRx is able to precisely and efficiently silence the mutant KrasG12D expression in PDAC cells. The knockdown of mutant KrasG12D by CasRx abolishes the aberrant activation of downstream signaling induced by mutant KrasG12D and subsequently suppresses the tumor growth and improves the sensitivity of gemcitabine in PDAC. Additionally, delivering CasRx-gRNA via AAV8 into the orthotopic KrasG12D PDAC tumors substantially improves the survival of mice without obvious toxicity. Furthermore, targeting KrasG12D through CasRx suppresses the growth of PDAC PDXs. In conclusion, our study provides a proof-of-concept that CRISPR-CasRx can be utilized to target and silence mutant KrasG12D transcripts and therefore inhibit PDAC malignancy.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers