High-entropy materials (HEMs) including high-entropy alloys (HEAs) and high-entropy ceramics (HECs) at nanoscale have promising prospects in many fields, yet a robust synthesis strategy is lacking. Herein, we present a simple and general approach, laser scanning ablation (LSA), to synthesize a vast library of HEA and HEC nanoparticles (NPs) including alloys, sulfides, oxides, borides, nitrides, phosphides. The LSA method takes only 5 nanoseconds per pulse to ablate the corresponding NPs precursors at atmospheric temperature and pressure in alkanes. The ultra-rapid process ensures up to 9 dissimilar metallic elements combined uniformly regardless of their thermodynamic
Green production of NH3, especially the Li‐mediated electrochemical N2 reduction reaction (NRR) in non‐aqueous solutions, is attracting research interest. Controversies regarding the NRR mechanism greatly impede its optimization and wide applications. To understand the electrocatalytic process, we treated Au coated carbon fibrous paper (Au/CP) as the model catalyst. In situ XRD confirmed the transformation of lithium intermediates during NRR. Au greatly improved electron transfer kinetics to catalyze metallic Li formation, and accordingly highly accelerated spontaneous NRR. The Faradaic efficiency of NRR on Au/CP reached 34.0 %, and NH3 yield was as high as 50 μg h−1 cm−2. Our research shows that the key step of Li‐mediated non‐aqueous NRR is electrocatalytic Li reduction and offers a novel electrocatalyst design method for Li reduction.
The metabolic profiling of biofluids using untargeted metabolomics provides a promising choice to discover metabolite biomarkers for clinical cancer diagnosis. However, metabolite biomarkers discovered in biofluids may not necessarily reflect the pathological status of tumor tissue, which makes these biomarkers difficult to reproduce. In this study, we developed a new analysis strategy by integrating the univariate and multivariate correlation analysis approach to discover tumor tissue derived (TTD) metabolites in plasma samples. Specifically, untargeted metabolomics was first used to profile a set of paired tissue and plasma samples from 34 colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. Next, univariate correlation analysis was used to select correlative metabolite pairs between tissue and plasma, and a random forest regression model was utilized to define 243 TTD metabolites in plasma samples. The TTD metabolites in CRC plasma were demonstrated to accurately reflect the pathological status of tumor tissue and have great potential for metabolite biomarker discovery. Accordingly, we conducted a clinical study using a set of 146 plasma samples from CRC patients and gender-matched polyp controls to discover metabolite biomarkers from TTD metabolites. As a result, eight metabolites were selected as potential biomarkers for CRC diagnosis with high sensitivity and specificity. For CRC patients after surgery, the survival risk score defined by metabolite biomarkers also performed well in predicting overall survival time (p = 0.022) and progression-free survival time (p = 0.002). In conclusion, we developed a new analysis strategy which effectively discovers tumor tissue related metabolite biomarkers in plasma for cancer diagnosis and prognosis.
High‐entropy materials (HEMs) with unique configuration and physicochemical properties have attracted intensive research interest. However, 2D HEMs have not been reported yet. To find out unique properties of combining 2D materials and HEMs, a series of 2D high‐entropy hydrotalcites (HEHs) is created by coprecipitation method, including quinary, septenary, and even novenary metallic elements. It is found that the fast synthetic kinetics of coprecipitation process conquers the thermodynamically solubility limitation of different elements, which is the prerequisite condition to form HEHs. As the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) electrocatalysts, HEHs show significantly decreased apparent activation energy compared with low‐entropy hydrotalcites (LEHs) due to the lattice distortion induced by the multimetallic character of HEHs. This work opens up a new avenue for the development of 2D HEMs, which broadens the family of HEMs and presents a most promising platform for exploring the unknown properties of HEMs.
This paper deals with a 12-phase synchronous generator with open-circuit fault of diode rectifier. Considering all space harmonics of air-gap magnetic field and the changing circuit topology, the mathematical model of the system is established based on the multiloop theory of machine. A series of experiments have been conducted on a 4-kW 12-phase synchronous model machine. The acceptable agreement between the simulated and experimental result validates the modeling process. Based on the analysis, the features of the open-circuit fault of rectifier are summarized. Finally, the algorithm of DC voltage odd harmonic detection is raised.
Green production of NH 3 , especially the Li-mediated electrochemical N 2 reduction reaction (NRR) in nonaqueous solutions, is attracting research interest. Controversies regarding the NRR mechanism greatly impede its optimization and wide applications. To understand the electrocatalytic process, we treated Au coated carbon fibrous paper (Au/CP) as the model catalyst. In situ XRD confirmed the transformation of lithium intermediates during NRR. Au greatly improved electron transfer kinetics to catalyze metallic Li formation, and accordingly highly accelerated spontaneous NRR. The Faradaic efficiency of NRR on Au/CP reached 34.0 %, and NH 3 yield was as high as 50 mg h À1 cm À2 . Our research shows that the key step of Li-mediated non-aqueous NRR is electrocatalytic Li reduction and offers a novel electrocatalyst design method for Li reduction.
A Pd‐catalyzed multi‐component carbonylative difluoroalkylation/perfluoroalkylation through the alkyne difunctionalization process has been developed. Besides, new functional fluoropolymer materials have been successfully synthesized. Owing to the presence of the fluorine element, the materials present excellent chemical resistance, high‐temperature‐resistance and outstanding hydrophobicity simultaneously, which may significantly make them great appealing in the industrial production and life science as well.
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