Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are recently implicated in modifying immunology in colorectal cancer (CRC). Nevertheless, the clinical significance of immune-related lncRNAs remains largely unexplored. In this study, we develope a machine learning-based integrative procedure for constructing a consensus immune-related lncRNA signature (IRLS). IRLS is an independent risk factor for overall survival and displays stable and powerful performance, but only demonstrates limited predictive value for relapse-free survival. Additionally, IRLS possesses distinctly superior accuracy than traditional clinical variables, molecular features, and 109 published signatures. Besides, the high-risk group is sensitive to fluorouracil-based adjuvant chemotherapy, while the low-risk group benefits more from bevacizumab. Notably, the low-risk group displays abundant lymphocyte infiltration, high expression of CD8A and PD-L1, and a response to pembrolizumab. Taken together, IRLS could serve as a robust and promising tool to improve clinical outcomes for individual CRC patients.
Our finding suggested that knockdown of ANRIL suppressed cell proliferation, metastasis and invasion via regulating miR-122-5p expression in HCC, illustrating the underlying mechanism of the oncogenic role of ANRIL in HCC.
Quercetin is a potent cancer therapeutic agent and dietary antioxidant present in fruit and vegetables. Quercetin prevents tumor proliferation by inducing cell cycle arrest and is a well known cancer therapeutic agent and autophagy mediator. Recent studies showed that drug delivery by nanoparticles have enhanced efficacy with reduced side effects. In this regard, gold-quercetin into poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles was examined. In this study, we explored the role and possible underlying mechanisms of quercetin nanoparticle in regulation of antitumor activity in liver cancer cells. Treatment with quercetin nanoparticle effectively inhibited the liver cancer cell proliferation, cell migration and colony formation, thus suppressing liver cancer progression. Quercetin nanoparticle also upregulated apoptosis markedly. Further study suggested that quercetin nanoparticle accelerated the cleavage of caspase-9, caspase-3, and induced the up-releasing of cytochrome c (Cyto-c), contributing to apoptosis in liver cancer cells. Quercetin nanoparticles also promoted telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) inhibition through reducing AP-2β expression and decreasing its binding to hTERT promoter. In addition, quercetin nanoparticle had an inhibitory role in cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) via suppressing the NF-κB nuclear translocation and its binding to COX-2 promoter. Quercetin nanoparticle also inactivated Akt and ERK1/2 signaling pathway. Taken together, our results suggested that quercetin nanoparticle had an antitumor effect by inactivating caspase/Cyto-c pathway, suppressing AP-2β/hTERT, inhibiting NF-κB/COX-2 and impeding Akt/ERK1/2 signaling pathways. Our results provided new mechanistic basis for further investigation of quercetin nanoparticles to find potential therapeutic strategies and possible targets for liver cancer inhibition.
Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) H19 in tumors played important roles in various biological processes. However, the biological role and molecular mechanism of H19 in breast cancer are unclear. Here, we found that H19 was aberrantly upregulated in human breast tumor tissues and cells. A negative correlation between H19 and miR-152 and positive correlation between H19 and DNMT1 mRNA were observed. Downregulation of H19 and DNMT1 significantly retarded breast cancer cell proliferation and invasion. H19 act as an endogenous sponge by directly binding to miR-152. miR-152 directly targeted DNMT1 and was regulated by H19. Besides, H19 overexpression dramatically relieved the inhibition of miR-152 on DNMT1 expression. miR-152 inhibition and DNMT1 overexpression obviously reversed the inhibitory effects of H19 downregulation on cell proliferation and invasion. In conclusion, H19 promoted proliferation and invasion of breast cancer through the miR-152/DNMT1 axis, providing a novel mechanism about the occurrence and development of breast cancer.
Recent studies have shown that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play pivotal roles in the initiation and progression of cancer, including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). The lncRNA HOX transcript antisense RNA (HOTAIR) was reported to be dysregulated and correlated with the progression of ESCC. However, the biological role and the underlying mechanism of HOTAIR in the development of ESCC remain unclear. Herein, we found that HOTAIR was aberrantly upregulated in ESCC cells and that HOTAIR depletion inhibited proliferation and led to G1 cell cycle arrest in ESCC cells. Besides, we found that HOTAIR acted as an endogenous sponge to downregulate miR-1 expression by directly binding to miR-1. Furthermore, HOTAIR overturned the effect of miR-1 on the proliferation and cell cycle profile in ESCC cells, which involved the derepression of cyclin D1 (CCND1) expression, a target of miR-1. Taken together, our study elucidated a novel HOTAIR /miR-1/CCND1 regulatory axis in which HOTAIR acted as a competing endogenous RNA by sponging miR-1 and upregulated CCND1 expression, thereby facilitating the tumorigenesis of ESCC. Investigation of this lncRNA/miRNA/mRNA pathway may contribute to a better understanding of ESCC pathogenesis and facilitate the development of lncRNA-directed therapy against this disease.
The tumor immunological microenvironment (TIME) has a prominent impact on prognosis and immunotherapy. However, the heterogeneous TIME and the mechanisms by which TIME affects immunotherapy have not been elucidated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
A total of 2195 eligible HCC patients from TCGA and GEO database were collected. We comprehensively explored the different heterogeneous TIME phenotypes and its clinical significance. The potential immune escape mechanisms and what genomic alterations may drive the formation of different phenotypes were further investigated.
We identified three phenotypes in HCC: TIME-1, the “immune-deficiency” phenotype, with immune cell depletion and proliferation; TIME-2, the “immune-suppressed” phenotype, with enrichment of immunosuppressive cells; TIME-3, the “immune-activated phenotype”, with abundant leukocytes infiltration and immune activation. The prognosis and sensitivity to both sorafenib and immunotherapy differed among the three phenotypes. We also underlined the potential immune escape mechanisms: lack of leukocytes and defective tumor antigen presentation capacity in TIME-1, increased immunosuppressive cells in TIME-2, and rich in immunoinhibitory molecules in TIME-3. The different phenotypes also demonstrated specific genomic events: TIME-1 characterized by TP53, CDKN2A, CTNNB1, AXIN1 and FOXD4 alterations; TIME-2 characterized by significant alteration patterns in the PI3K pathway; TIME-3 characterized by ARID1A mutation. Besides, the TIME index (TI) was proposed to quantify TIME infiltration pattern, and it was a superior prognostic and immunotherapy predictor. A pipeline was developed to classify single patient into one of these three subtypes and calculated the TI.
We identified three TIME phenotypes with different clinical outcomes, immune escape mechanisms and genomic alterations in HCC, which could present strategies for improving the efficacy of immunotherapy. TI as a novel prognostic and immunotherapeutic signature that could guide personalized immunotherapy and clinical management of HCC.
BackgroundFerroptosis is essential for tumorigenesis and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The heterogeneity of ferroptosis and its relationship with tumor microenvironment (TME) have still remain elusive.MethodsBased on 74 ferroptosis related genes (FRGs) and 3,933 HCC samples from 32 datasets, we comprehensively explored the heterogenous ferroptosis subtypes. The clinical significance, functional status, immune infiltration, immune escape mechanisms, and genomic alterations of different subtypes were further investigated.ResultsWe identified and validated two heterogeneous ferroptosis subtypes: C1 was metabolismlowimmunityhigh subtype and C2 was metabolismhighimmunitylow subtype. Compared to C2, C1 owned worse prognosis, and C1 tended to occur in the patients with clinical characteristics such as younger, female, advanced stage, higher grade, vascular invasion. C1 and C2 were more sensitive to immunotherapy and sorafenib, respectively. The immune escape mechanisms of C1 might be accumulating more immunosuppressive cells, inhibitory cytokines, and immune checkpoints, while C2 was mainly associated with inferior immunogenicity, defecting in antigen presentation, and lacking leukocytes. In addition, C1 was characterized by BAP1 mutation, MYC amplification, and SCD1 methylation, while C2 was characterized by the significant alterations in cell cycle and chromatin remodeling processes. We also constructed and validated a robust and promising signature termed ferroptosis related risk score (FRRS) for assessing prognosis and immunotherapy.ConclusionWe identified and validated two heterogeneous ferroptosis subtypes and a reliable risk signature which used to assess prognosis and immunotherapy. Our results facilitated the understood of ferroptosis as well as clinical management and precise therapy of HCC.
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